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13th International LS-DYNA Conference

H-Point Machine and Head Restraint Measurement Device Positioning Tools and Validation
Brian Walker, Liliana Cowlam, Jamie Dennis (Arup)
Simon Albery, Nicolas Leblanc (Futuris)
It is essential for seat manufactures to be able to accurately predict the H-Point position of a seat during the design stage, i.e. before the seat is actually built. This can be estimated empirically but this method is usually not sufficient to accurately determine how the manikin’s position is affected by subtle yet complex interactions within the seat and its trim. To aid this process, Arup have developed a positioning tool kit for use in ...
High Strain Rate Testing and Modeling of Polymers for Impact Simulations
Jorgen Bergstrom, David Anderson, David Quinn, Eric Schmitt, Stuart Brown, Samuel Chow (Veryst Engineering, LLC)
The increased use of polymeric materials in impact and high strain rate applications is motivating the use of impact simulations during design. However, simulation of polymer impacts requires difficult-to-measure stress-strain behavior at high strain rates. Even when appropriate data is collected, accurate high strain rate constitutive models need to be fit to the data before being incorporated into a simulation code. This article presents a ...
Implementation of a New Continuum Damage Mechanics Model for Composites in LS-DYNA®
Danghe Shi, Xinran Xiao (Michigan State University)
A large amount of work has been done to simulate the crashworthiness of composite structures, particularly to evaluate the deformation behavior and to determine the energy absorbing efficiency. However, the existing simulation models generally need to introduce many non-measurable parameters which limited their practical applications. This work focused on the implementation and development of a thermodynamically consistent continuum damage ...
Improving Performance of LS-DYNA® Crash Simulation with Large Deformation by Modifying Domain Decomposition
Shota Yamada (Fujitsu Limited)
In modern high performance computing era, parallel computing has been a trend to improve the speed of computation. In the past we have found that just simply increasing the number of computing parallelism would not guarantee to achieve better performance especially when simulating large deformation using hundreds or more number of parallel processors. Through our past experience, to improve the computational performance, we had found it was ...
Improving the Precision of Discrete Element Simulations through Calibration Models
Adrian Jensen, George Laird (Predictive Engineering)
Kirk Fraser (Predictive Engineering, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi)
The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is fast becoming the numerical method of choice for modelling the flow of granular material. Mining, agriculture and food handling industries, among many others, have been turning their attention towards this powerful analysis technique. In this paper, we present three simple calibration modeling tactics that should be the starting point for every DEM simulation of dry and semi-dry granular material. The three ...
Increasing LS-DYNA® Productivity on SGI Systems: A Step-by-Step Approach
Olivier Schreiber, Tony DeVarco, Scott Shaw, Aaron Altman (SGI)
SGI delivers an unified compute, storage and remote visualization solution to our manufacturing customers that reduces overall system management requirements and costs . LSTC has now integrated Explicit, Implicit solver technologies into a single hybrid code base allowing seamless switching from large time steps transient dynamics to linear statics and normal modes analysis. There are multiple computer architectures available from SGI to ...
Inelastic Transversely Isotropic Constitutive Model for High Performance Polymer Fibers
Subramani Sockalingam, Michael Keefe, John W. Gillespie Jr. (University of Delaware)
High performance polymer fibers such as Kevlar, Spectra and Dyneema are widely used in ballistic impact applications. Under transverse compression at finite strains these fibers exhibit nonlinear inelastic behavior. The role of transverse compression during ballistic impact is not very well understood. In this work we implement a transversely isotropic inelastic constitutive model as a user defined material model (UMAT) in LS-DYNA®. A plasticity ...
Interaction Methods for the SPH Parts (Multiphase Flows, Solid Bodies) in LS-DYNA®
Jingxiao Xu, Jason Wang (LSTC)
Smooth particles hydrodynamics is a meshfree, Lagrangian particle method for modeling fluid flows and solid bodies. It has been applied extensively to the multiphase flows, heat conduction, high explosive problems and so on. In this paper, different interaction methods available in the LS-DYNA for SPH parts which have wide range of density and material properties are studied and compared. Node to node contacts fit well for the interaction ...
Introduction of Die System Module in LS-PrePost®
Chunjie Zhang, Philip Ho, Xinhai Zhu (LSTC)
Die system module (DSM) is developed to generate tool geometry in an early stage and to evaluate these result by forming simulation. DSM Graphics User Interface is designed to provide metal forming users a tool to generate die face more effectively. The main focus of module is placed on easy modification and reuse of existing design. This paper illustrates the algorithm and some special feature of DSM
Introduction of Rotor Dynamics Using Implicit Method in LS-DYNA®
Liping Li, Roger Grimes (LSTC)
Rotor dynamics is commonly used to analyze the behavior of structures ranging from jet engines and steam turbines to auto engines and computer disk drives. In such applications, the amplitude of structural vibration can become excessive when the speed of rotation approaches the system’s critical speed. This paper introduces a primary implementation of rotor dynamics in LS-DYNA and presents a validation study of this new implemented feature ...
Investigation of Delamination Modeling Capabilities for Thin Composite Structures in LS-DYNA®
S.A. Muflahi, G. Mohamed, S.R. Hallett (University of Bristol)
Predictive capabilities to simulate the initiation and propagation of delamination in thin composite laminates have been investigated. Different element formulations (3D solids, 2D shells, and 3D thick shells), cohesive fracture models (commercially available in LS-DYNA 971 v6.1 and *USER_DEFINED constitutive behavior) and stacking procedures have been applied to representative composite models of increasing complexity to demonstrate their ...
Isogeometric Analysis in LS-DYNA®
Attila P. Nagy, David J. Benson (Dept. of Structural Engineering, UCSD)
Stefan Hartmann (DYNAmore GmbH)
Two new areas of development of isogeometric analysis in LS-DYNA are presented. The first, which is currently available, is mass scaling. The second, which will be available sometime during the next year, is the development of efficient integration methods for trimmed NURBS, which will allow a much more direct connection between CAD and analysis in LS-DYNA. Industrial applications of both are presented. Metal stamping is one of the most cost ...
JSD - Introduction of Integrated Seat Design System for LS-DYNA®
Noriyo Ichinose (JSOL Corporation)
Recently vehicle modelling is becoming more detailed and complex. Automotive companies are more and more directly evaluating dummy injury criteria in crash analysis. To evaluate injury criteria, a more detailed seat model is needed, because injury criteria are highly depending on seat structure and restraint system. In addition to the above, many types of LS-DYNA analysis are carried out during one seat design process (e.g. frontal impact, side ...
Key Parameters in Blast Modeling Using 2D to 3D ALE Mapping Technique
Anil Kalra, Feng Zhu, King H Yang, Albert I King (Wayne State University)
A numerical simulation is conducted to model the explosive detonation and blast wave propagation in the open air field. The mesh size and boundary conditions as well as size of air domain are the sensitive variables which may significantly affect the predicted pressure wave magnitude and rising time in blast simulations. The current approach focuses on determining the optimal key parameters to predict the blast wave accurately. A 2D to 3D ...
LS-DYNA® ALE/FSI Recent Developments
Hao Chen, Jason Wang, Ian Do (LSTC)
LS-DYNA ALE(Arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian Method), equipped with its own fluid-structure interaction, aims to solve a series of transient engineering problems characterized by large momentum and energy transfer between Lagrange structures and ALE fluids. LS-DYNA ALE multi-material formulation solves multiple species of fluids in one ALE mesh. The fluid interfaces are tracked internally by our interface reconstruction algorithms at each of the ...
LS-DYNA® Big Data Processing, Mining and Visualization using d3VIEW
Suri Bala (LSTC)
LS-DYNA Data Processing, Storage and Visualization consume a lot of time and effort for every Engineer and Scientist who uses simulations to aid product development. This paper reviews commonly used workflows in simulation based product design to identify areas where d3VIEW can significantly reduce time and effort in data intensive tasks. In conclusion, this paper will demonstrate by example how d3VIEW provides advanced capabilities in data ...
LS-DYNA® HYBRID Studies using the LS-DYNA® Aerospace Working Group Generic Fan Rig Model
Gilbert Queitzsch (Federal Aviation Administration)
Cing-Dao Kan, Kivanc Sengoz (George Mason University)
Thomas J. Vasko (Central Connecticut State University)
In addition to the well-known parallel versions of LS-DYNA, the symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) version and massively parallel processor (MPP) version, LSTC offers an LS-DYNA HYBRID version that combines these two parallel programming models into a single code. The development of LS-DYNA HYBRID, which started in 2011, is focused on obtaining high code performance on large cluster environments. The intent of the current study is to ...
LS-DYNA® Performance in Side Impact Simulations with 100M Element Models
Alexander Akkerman, Yijung Chen, Bahij El-Fadl, Omar Faruque, Dennis Lam (Ford Motor Company)
LS-DYNA has been used for vehicle crash simulations for many years. The models have increased in size over the years but in most cases do not exceed more than a few million elements. However, recently developed material models require much greater levels of refinement resulting in much larger models, perhaps as high as 100M elements. Simulating models of the order of 100M elements in turn requires much higher levels of scalability in order to be ...
LS-DYNA® R7 : Free Surface and Multi-phase Analysis for Incompressible Flows
Facundo Del Pin, Iñaki Çaldichoury, Rodrigo R. Paz (LSTC)
LS-DYNA R7 introduced an incompressible flow solver which can track flow interfaces such as free surfaces or the interface between two fluids. Several industrial applications may be simulated with these features. In the area of free surface flows the effects of the lighter phase are neglected, i.e. in the case of water-air interfaces the air could be ignored if its effect does not change significantly the dynamics of the water phase. Some ...
LS-DYNA® R7: The ICFD Solver for Conjugate Heating Applications
Iñaki Çaldichoury, Facundo Del Pin, Rodrigo R. Paz (LSTC)
LS-DYNA version R7 introduced an incompressible flow solver (ICFD solver) which may run as a standalone CFD solver for pure thermal fluid problems or it can be strongly coupled using a monolithically approach with the LS-DYNA solid thermal solver in order to solve complex conjugate heat transfer problems. Some validation results for conjugate heat transfer analyses have been presented at the 9th European LS-DYNA Conference (2013) [1]. This ...
LS-DYNA® Scalability Analysis on Cray Supercomputers
Ting-Ting Zhu (Cray Inc.)
Jason Wang (LSTC)
For the automotive industry, car crash analysis by finite elements is crucial to shortening the design cycle and reducing costs. To increase the accuracy of analysis, in additional to the improvement in finite element technique, smaller cells of finite element meshes are used to better represent the car geometry. The use of finer mesh coupled with the need for fast turnaround has put increased demand on scalability of the finite element ...
LS-DYNA: Status and Development Plan
John Hallquist, Yun Huang, Iñaki Çaldichoury, Jason Wang (LSTC)
Recent enhancements – John Hallquist Linear solver – Yun Huang LS-PrePost: ICFD & EM – Iñaki Çaldichoury Particle methods – Jason Wang
LS-OPT®: New Developments and Outlook
Nielen Stander and Anirban Basudhar (LSTC)
New features available in LS-OPT® 5.1 are discussed and illustrated. The main features include three new solver types, Parallel Feedforward Neural Networks, seamless variable de-activation for iterative methods, exporting of selected metamodel formulae, subregion-based Global Sensitivity Analysis, enhanced histogram visualization features and Viewer-based categorization of simulation results.
Manufacturing the London 2012 Olympic Torch
Trevor Dutton, Paul Richardson (Dutton Simulation Ltd)
A key part of the build-up to the London 2012 Olympic Games was the Torch relay for which each one of the 8,000 runners required a Torch. The design of the Torch comprised inner and outer skins of perforated aluminium formed into a triangular cross-section, which flared out towards the top to house the gas burner. Dutton Simulation was asked to assist with development of a process to manufacture the skins to the required accuracy and quality ...
Maximizing Cluster Utilization for LS-DYNA® Using 100Gb/s InfiniBand
Pak Lui, Gilad Shainer, Scot Schultz (Mellanox Technologies, Inc.)
From concept to engineering and from design to test and manufacturing, the automotive industry relies on powerful virtual development solutions. Crash simulations are performed in an effort to secure quality, safety and accelerate the development process. As the models become more complex to better simulate the physical behavior in crash simulations, the computers that run as a cluster also need to be higher to meet the needs of the higher ...
Meso-Scale FEA modeling to Simulate Crack Initiation and Propagation in Boron Steel
Yijung Chen, Omar Faruque, Cedric Xia, Alex Akkerman, Dennis Lam (Ford Motor Company)
The scope of this paper focuses on the characterization and prediction of potential crack initiation and propagation in a boron-steel component under extreme impact load, utilizing a meso-scale FE (0.2 mm solid element) modeling with the MIT MMC (modified Mohr-Coulomb) fracture criterion. The MMC fracture criterion is implemented through LS-DYNA® *MAT224 and *MAT_ADD_EROSION with GISSMO option. A finite element mesh with total number of ...
Methodologies and Examples for Efficient Short and Long Duration Integrated Occupant-Vehicle Crash Simulation
R. Reichert, C.-D. Kan, D. Marzougui, U. Mahadevaiah, R. Morgan, C.-K. Park, F. Tahan (George Mason University)
Integrated occupant-vehicle analysis plays an important role in vehicle and occupant safety developments. Car manufacturers are using detailed full system models consisting of vehicle structure, interior, restraint systems, barrier, and occupant to develop safety measures and assure compliance with legal requirements, good rating results in consumer information tests, and vehicle safety in real life crash configurations. Suppliers are using ...
Methods for Modeling Solid Sports Ball Impacts
Derek Nevins, Lloyd Smith (Washington State University)
Finite element modeling of dynamic sports ball impacts presents a substantial challenge. This is because, rather than displaying linear-elastic behavior, many sports balls are predominantly non-linear, inelastic and rate dependent. This is true of both softballs and baseballs, which exhibit strong rate-dependence and large energy dissipation characteristics in collisions occurring under play-like conditions. The development of finite element ...
Mild Traumatic Brain Injury-Mitigating Football Helmet Design Evaluation
M.S. Hamid (Advanced Computational Systems, LLC)
Minoo Shah (IDIADA Automotive Technology)
Concussion, as known as mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), is the most common sport-related head injury. Football is the most common sport with higher concussions in USA. Helmet is the equipment being used in mitigation of mTBI. There are numerous designs of helmets which meet the requirements of sport regulation committee. In this paper, a football helmet is evaluated using numerical methods. The brain and the tissues in human head are ...
MME-Converter and MME-Report for LS-DYNA® Users
Seung Hun Jeong (10DR KOREA Co., Ltd.)
This paper will focus on the main features, benefits and use of MME-Converter and MME-Report which could be highly useful to LS-DYNA users for vehicle crash test analysis. With MME-Converter users can simply convert LS-DYNA result files, such as nodout, elout, deforc and rcforc to MME-filtered files through the auto-syntax analysis and then compare these converted MME-filtered files to real vehicle crash test data. The conversion of LS-DYNA ...
Modal Dynamics in LS-DYNA®
Roger Grimes (LSTC)
In LS971 R71, LSTC has enhanced its capabilities in Modal Dynamics from previous versions. This talk will give an overview of the enhanced capabilities which include mode selection and modal damping. We will present an industrial example of using this capability including a comparison of using Modal Dynamics and a full simulation.
Modeling Nuclear Fuel Rod Drop with LS-DYNA®
W. Zhao, J. Liu, W. Stilwell, B. Hempy, Z. Karoutas (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC)
As a primary barrier to the fission product release, maintaining the structural integrity of fuel rod cladding has been a topic of great importance. To help better understand the structural behavior of the fuel rod in shipping and handling incidents, a detailed model for a typical pressure water reactor (PWR) fuel rod is being developed using LS-DYNA. The paper describes an on-going model development effort. For efficiency of the development ...
Modeling of Automotive Airbag Inflators using Chemistry Solver in LS-DYNA®
Kyoung-Su Im, Zeng-Chan Zhang, and Grant Cook, Jr. (LSTC)
Airbags are part of an important vehicle safety system, and the inflator is an essential part that generates a specific volume of gas to the airbag for a short duration of time. Recently, we have developed numerical models of automotive airbag inflators in conjunction with the LS-DYNA® chemistry solver. In this presentation, we will demonstrate two different models: a conventional pyrotechnic inflator and a compressed, heated gas inflator. ...
Modeling Rebar: The Forgotten Sister in Reinforced Concrete Modeling (v2)
Leonard E Schwer (Schwer Engineering & Consulting Services)
As part of the “Blind Blast Simulation Contest 1 ,” organized by the University of Missouri Kansas City, participants were invited to submit predictions of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to air blast loading. There were two classes of concrete: normal strength f c ′ = 5 ksi (34.5 MPa) and high strength f c ′ = 15 ksi (103.5 MPa). The normal strength concrete was reinforced with Number 3 Grade 60 steel bars with yield strength of 68 ksi ...
Modelling of Armour-piercing Projectile Perforation of Thick Aluminium Plates
Kasper Cramon Jørgensen, Vivian Swan (NIRAS A/S)
This study investigates the perforation process of armour-piercing projectiles on commercially available high-strength aluminium. A LS-DYNA® model is developed with thick target plates of aluminium alloy 7075-T651 and an incoming 7.62 mm armour-piercing projectile with an impact velocity of 850 m/s. A numerical formulation combining classic Lagrangian finite elements with an adaptive mesh algorithm is utilized to overcome large deformation ...
New Features of CE/SE Compressible Fluid Solver in LS-DYNA®
Zeng-Chan Zhang, Grant O. Cook, Jr. & Kyoung-Su Im (LSTC)
CESE compressible fluid solver is one of the new solvers in LS-DYNA R7.0. This solver is based on the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method, originally proposed by Chang [1]. The CE/SE method has many non-traditional features, such as (i) both local and global flux conservation are well maintained in space and time; (ii) shock waves can be captured automatically without using Riemann solvers or special limiters, ...
New Ordering Method for Implicit Mechanics and What It Means for Large Implicit Simulations
Roger Grimes, Cleve Ashcraft (LSTC)
The most egregious serial bottleneck for Large Implicit Mechanics modeling for distributed memory parallel execution, independent of the application package, is the sparse matrix ordering for the direct matrix solution. LSTC is developing a new distributed memory ordering algorithm that is at least as effective as the serial algorithm METIS but is a fully scalable implementation. We will give an overview of the algorithm and the impact on some ...
New Representation of Bearings in LS-DYNA®
Kelly S. Carney, Samuel A. Howard (NASA Glenn Research Center)
Brad A. Miller (Harding University, Searcy)
David J. Benson (University of California San Diego, La Jolla)
Non-linear, dynamic, finite element analysis is used in various engineering disciplines to evaluate high-speed, dynamic impact and vibration events. Some of these applications require rotation of some elements relative to other elements with various levels of constraints.  For example, bird impacts on rotating aircraft engine fan blades is a common analysis done using this type of analysis tool. Traditionally, rotating machines utilize some ...
Newly Developed LS-DYNA® Models for the THOR-M and Harmonized HIII 50th Crash Test Dummies
Chirag S. Shah, Suraush Khambati, Brock Watson, Nishant Balwan, Zaifei Zhou, Fuchun Zhu, Shiva Shetty (Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Inc.)
Finite Element (FE) models of Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD), commonly known as crash test dummies, have become increasingly applicable in automotive safety. A variety of ATDs models are widely used in many areas such as restraint development, automotive crashworthiness, occupant safety and other automotive environment related applications. With the increase in cost effectiveness of computational power, progressively complex and detailed ...
Nonlinear viscoelastic modeling for foams
Veronika Effinger, André Haufe (Dynamore GmbH)
Paul DuBois (Consultant)
Markus Feucht (Daimler AG)
Manfred Bischoff (University of Stuttgart)
Lightweight design is one of the major principles in automotive engineering and has made polymer materials to inherent parts of modern cars. In addition to their lightweight potential thermoplastics, elastomers, fabric and composites also incur important functions in passive safety. In the age of virtual prototyping, assuring these functions requires the accurate modeling of the mechanical behavior of each component. Due to their molecular ...
Numerical Investigation of Landslide Mobility and Debris-Resistant Flexible Barrier with LS-DYNA®
Yuli Huang, Jack Yiu, Jack Pappin, and Richard Sturt (Arup) Julian S. H. Kwan and Ken K. S. Ho (Hong Kong SAR Government)
Numerical Investigation of Phase Change and Cavitation Effects in Nuclear Power Plant Pipes
M. Souli, R. Messahel (University of Lille)
B. Cohen (EDF UTO)
N. Aquelet (LSTC)
In the nuclear and petroleum industry, supply pipes are often exposed to high pressure loading which can cause to the structure high strains, plasticity and even in the worst scenario failure. Fast hydraulic transient phenomena such as Water Hammers (WHs) are of this type. It generates a pressure wave that propagates in the pipe causing high stress. Such phenomena are of the order of few msecs and numerical simulation can offer a better ...
Numerical Simulations to Investigate the Efficiency of Joint Designs for the Electro-Magnetic Welding (EMW) of the Ring-shaft Assembly
H. Kim, J. Gould (Edison Welding Institute)
J. Shang (American Trim)
A. Yadav, R. Meyer (Caterpillar Inc)
Pierre L'Eplattenier (LSTC)
In this study, numerical simulations on electro-magnetic welding (EMW) were conducted for dissimilar materials joint of the ring-shaft assembly. LS-DYNA® electromagnetism module was adopted to simulate the EMW process. Simulation results were correlated with the EMW experimental works with two different joint designs, single and double flared lap joint. Two different materials, aluminum 6061-T4 and copper, C40, were used for the driver ring ...
On Rollover Simulations of a Full-sized Sedan
Ronald F. Kulak (RFK Engineering Mechanics Consultants LLC)
Rollover crashes are responsible for many occupant injuries and fatalities. Rollover crash fatalities account for 36 percent of total fatalities for passenger cars and light trucks. Front seat occupants are vulnerable to head, neck and thoracic injuries resulting from impact with the collapsing roof structure. Modeling and simulation on parallel computing platforms using state-of-the-art software – such as LS-DYNA® – is an attractive and ...
On the Parameter Estimation for the Discrete-Element Method in LS-DYNA®
Nils Karajan (DYNAmore GmbH)
Zhidong Han, Hailong Teng, Jason Wang (LSTC)
The goal of this contribution is to discuss the assumptions made when modeling granular media with the discrete-element method (DEM). Herein, particular focus is drawn on the physical interpretation of the involved material parameters of the DEM in LS-DYNA. Following this, the influence of each parameter on the bulk behavior of granular media is investigated and different possibilities to estimate these parameters are presented.
On the prediction of material failure in LS-DYNA®: A comparison between GISSMO and DIEM
Filipe Andrade, Andre Haufe (DYNAmore GmbH)
Markus Feucht (Daimler AG)
As a consequence of the worldwide tendency in reducing CO2 emissions by producing lighter and more energy-efficient products, the demand for accurate predictions regarding material behavior and material failure has greatly increased in recent years. In particular in the automotive industry, there is also an increasing interest in effectively closing the gap between forming and crash, since the forming operations may highly affect the ...
Optimization Design of Bonnet Inner Based on Pedestrian Head Protection and Stiffness Requirements
Xiaomin Zeng, Xiongqi Peng (Shanghai Jiao Tong University)
Hongsheng Lu (Shanghai Hengstar Technology Co. Ltd)
Edmondo Di Pasquale (SimTech Simulation et Technologie)
Pedestrian head impact with bonnet is one of the major causes for pedestrian severe injury or fatality. This paper proposes a multidisciplinary design optimization method for bonnet inner based on pedestrian head protection along with stiffness requirements. The static stiffness and headform collision procedure with regard to a particular industrial bonnet are analyzed. Parametric design and optimization analysis of this bonnet are carried out. ...
Particle Blast Method (PBM) for the Simulation of Blast Loading
Hailong Teng, Jason Wang (LSTC)
This paper presents a particle blast method (PBM) to describe blast loading. The PBM is an extension of corpuscular method (CPM), which is coarse-grained multi-scale method developed for ideal gas dynamics simulation. It is based on the kinetic molecular theory, where molecules are viewed as rigid particles obeying Newton’s laws of mechanics, while each particle in the particle method represents a group of gas molecules. Pressure loading on ...
PC3: Crash and Blast Analysis Post-Processor for Simulations and Live Tests
Hadar Raz (Plasan Ltd.)
For crash and blast tests of vehicles and sub-assemblies, simulations play an important role in the prediction of the test results. Some of the most important results are the occupants’ injury criteria, which are calculated by simulating ATDs and their various joints, accelerometers, etc’. Often in a simulation/test there are few ATDs, and there is an increasing demand for post-processing of the injury criteria in an automated way, as well as ...
Prediction of the Drop Impact Performance of a Glass Reinforced Nylon Oil Pan
Peter H. Foss (General Motors Global Research & Development)
As part of a cooperative development project between General Motors, BASF and Montaplast, a glass reinforced nylon oil pan was designed, analyzed, molded and tested. The oil pan was molded from BASF’s Ultramid® B3ZG7 OSI, an "Optimized for Stone Impact" grade of impact modified 35% short glass filled PA6. One of the development tests run on the pans was a drop impact test. In this report we will compare the predicted and experimental ...