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11th International LS-DYNA Conference

Isogeometric Analysis: Introduction and Overview
T.J.R. Hughes - The University of Texas at Austin
Outline: Isogeometric analysis B-splines, NURBS T-splines Bezier extraction Research progress
Latest Developments in Crash Pre Processing and Post Processing - Innovative Ideas Brought to the Industry
L. Rorris - BETA CAE Systems SA
The increasingly demanding and complex requirements in Crash Analysis, call for continuous and innovative software development. BETA CAE Systems in an effort to meet and exceed the requirements of the industry is introducing new cutting edge technologies, both in the pre-processing area with ANSA, and in post-processing with μETA. This paper presents these new technologies. With the introduction of a new version of ANSA in 2009 a new user ...
LS-DYNA "Model Compare" in Visual-Environment
Shivakumara H. Shetty, Velayudham Ganesa - ESI Group
Milind Parab - Mindware
Sreedhar Kandagatla - ESI Software (India) Pvt Ltd
A downturn in the industry drives companies to execute projects with fewer resources. The demand for product innovation and productivity improvements has increased exponentially. In order to meet the customers’ demand, ESI’s Visual-Environment provides new features and improvements to achieve productivity, better usability and workflow. One such new feature is “Model Compare”. Using “Model Compare”, a user can compare models to identify the ...
LS-DYNA Analysis of a Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Test
Martin S. Annett - NASA Langley Research Center
A full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter was conducted in December 2009 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research facility (LandIR). The MD-500 helicopter was fitted with a composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) and tested under vertical and horizontal impact velocities of 26 ft/sec and 40 ft/sec, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic ...
LS-DYNA and JMAG Coupling Simulation for Change of SPM Motor Magnetic Properties Due to Press-Fitting
Kazuya Sato, Kazuyuki Narita, Hiroyuki Sano - JSOL Corporation
Press-fitting is one of the methods to keep the laminated structure of the motor core. It is known that the compressive stress due to press-fitting causes an increase of the core-losses. In this paper, the influence of the press- fitting stress on the motor magnetic properties was investigated using LS-DYNA and JMAG coupling simulation. JMAG is a comprehensive software suite for electromechanical equipment design and development. In ...
LS-DYNA Best-Practices: Networking, MPI and Parallel File System Effect on LS-DYNA Performance
Gilad Shainer - HPC Advisory Council
Tong Liu - Mellanox Technologies
Jeff Layton, Onur Celebioglu - Dell
From concept to engineering, and from design to test and manufacturing, the automotive industry relies on powerful virtual development solutions. CFD and crash simulations are performed in an effort to secure quality and accelerate the development process. The recent trends in cluster environments, such as multi-core CPUs, GPUs, cluster file systems and new interconnect speeds and offloading capabilities are changing the dynamics of ...
LS-DYNA Durability Load Cases: An Automated Template Driven Process Using the ANSA Task Manager
Yianni Kolokythas - BETA CAE Systems SA
Dietmar Fels, Matthias Weinert - Ford-Werke GmbH
Process organization and standardization are essential in a CAE turnaround cycle. In an era, where the vehicle development time is getting reduced and the number of load case analysis is getting increased, the need for automatic standard processes is increasing. Ford-Werke GmbH and BETA CAE Systems SA are cooperating to develop streamlined, automatic processes, using the ANSA Task Manager. The goal, of these template driven processes, are to ...
LS-DYNA Implemented Multi-Layer Fabric Material Model Development for Engine Fragment Mitigation
S. D. Rajan, B. Mobasher, A. Vaidya - Arizona State University
The development of a robust and reliable material model for dry fabrics is the main subject of this paper. Dry fabrics are used in a number of applications such as propulsion engines fan-containment systems, and soft body armor. A mechanistic-based material behavior model capturing the behavior of fabrics when subjected to impacts from high-velocity projectiles would make a powerful predictive tool. In this paper, the constitutive model ...
LS-DYNA Meshfree Interactive Adaptivity and Its Application
Wei Hu, C. T. Wu - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
Kei Saito - Engineering Technology Division, JSOL Corporation
The meshfree adaptive method has been developed and widely used as an important tool to deal with large topology change with severe local deformation in the application of 3D metal forming analysis. However, due to the complexity of material deformation, it is impractical to predefine the adaptivity before the actual analysis is performed. The interactive adaptivity will be an alternative to dynamically detect distortion and maintain the ...
LS-DYNA on Advanced SGI Architectures
Olivier Schreiber, Scott Shaw, Brian Thatch - SGI Applications Engineering
Bill Tang - SGI Systems Engineering
LS-DYNA’s implicit solver integration with explicit software allows large time steps transient dynamics as well as linear statics and normal modes analysis. Until recently,this capability could only be run on large Shared Memory Parallel (SMP) systems,where the application had access to large memory address space of the model. Distributed Memory Parallel (DMP) implementation of LS-DYNA’s implicit solver now allows the factorization of smaller ...
LS-OPT/Topology Version 1
Willem Roux, Tushar Goel - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
David Björkevik - Engineering Research AB
This paper presents LS-OPT/Topology, a new topology optimization tool. Topics such as its capabilities, current development directions, and integration into an industrial design environment are discussed.
LSTC / NCAC Dummy Model Development
Pradeep Mohan, Chung-Kyu Park, Dhafer Marzougui, Cing-Dao Kan - The George Washington University
Sarba Guha, Christoph Maurath, Dilip Bhalsod - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
This paper presents the modeling and validation status of the most commonly used crash test dummies in the regulatory and consumer crash test programs, the Hybrid III family of crash test dummies. Systematic modeling and validation procedures are established and adopted to ensure the accuracy, efficiency, robustness, and ease of use of the models. The procedures are based on the premise that the model must be based on the fundamentals ...
Mathematical Modeling of Asteroid Falling into the Ocean
A.V. Abramov, O.V. Voikina, I.V. Minaev -LLC "STRELA" Open Computer Center
V.A. Simonenko - RFNC Zababakhin Research Institute of Technical Physics
E.A. Abramov - South-Ural State University
N.A. Skorkin National Research Nuclear University "MIFI"
Today, experimental information about large-scale collision tsunami is not available. That is why one of the main tools of studies is mathematical modeling. This paper considers falling of stone asteroid with diameter 1 km into the ocean 4 km deep. This asteroid collides with the Earth at a speed of 22 km/s at angles 30, 60 and 90 degrees. Calculation of space body collision with a barrier is split into two stages. At the first stage, using ...
Meshfree Analysis Using the Generalized Meshfree (GMF) Approximation
Chung-Kyu Park, Cing-Dao (Steve) Kan - The George Washington University
Cheng-Tang Wu - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
Meshfree methods are becoming widely used in many industrial fields since the finite element method (FEM) has inherent limitations, such as mesh quality and related distortion problems, to analyze sophisticated problems under large deformation. However, the meshfree methods also have their own deficiencies, mainly the high CPU cost. Recently, the generalized mesh-free (GMF) approximation is developed to improve the efficiency and accuracy ...
Mode-based Frequency Response Function and Steady State Dynamics in LS-DYNA
Yun Huang - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
Bor-Tsuen Wang - National Pingtung University of Science and Technology
Two new features used for frequency domain structural analysis --- frequency response function (FRF) and steady state dynamics (SSD), have been implemented in LS-DYNA, based on mode superposition techniques. As a characteristic of a structure, FRF is the transfer function which represents structural response resulting from applied unit harmonic excitations. The harmonic excitations can be given in the form of nodal force, base acceleration ...
Modeling Bird Impact on a Rotating Fan: The Influence of Bird Parameters
M. Selezneva, K. Behdinan, C. Poon - Ryerson University
P. Stone, T. Moffat - Pratt and Whitney Canada
The ability to withstand bird impact is one of the major requirements of the modern aircraft jet engine. In fact, rigorous certification procedures are put in place to assess the engine’s ability to sustain severe impact loads developed during bird impact. Full scale bird tests are expensive and time consuming, and call for the use of accurate numerical approximations during the design stages of engine development. The main ...
Modeling Blast Damage of Composite Structures
Bazle A. Gama, Venkat S. Chiravuri, and John W. Gillespie Jr. - University of Delaware
Blast loading on monolithic materials, sandwich structures, and composite flat plates and cylinders are investigated using LS-DYNA blast loading function and the progressive composite damage model MAT162. Energy dissipating damage mechanisms, momentum transfer, resistance forces, accelerations, and dynamic displacements are analyzed to understand the blast resistance behavior of the flat plates and the cylinders.
Modeling the Effects of Laser Peening on Friction Stir Welding Residual Stresses
Dr. Kelly Carney, Dr. Omar Hatamleh - NASA Glenn Research Center and Johnson Spaceflight Center
An analytical framework for predicting the residual stresses which result from the laser peening of a friction stir welded sample, using the finite element software LS-DYNA®, is presented, using a 2195 Aluminum alloy as an example. The pressures resulting from the laser peening are directly applied in an explicit transient analysis as forces. At the completion of the transient analysis, an implicit springback analysis is performed to ...
Modeling the Low Velocity Impact on Thick-Section Composite Cylinder
Sang-Guk Kang, Bazle A. Gama, Shridhar Yarlagadda, John W. Gillespie Jr. - University of Delaware
Thorsten Schütz, Stephan Fell - Adam Opel GmbH
Composite materials frequently have been applied to axi-symmetric filament-wound cylinder structures due to their specific stiffness and strength properties. When these structures are subjected to low-velocity impact (LVI), there exists a possibility of significant material damage which can drastically reduce the structural performance. The main objective of this paper is to predict the low velocity impact damage in thick composite cylinders ...
Modeling Wire Rope Used in Cable Barrier Systems
Cody S. Stolle, John D. Reid - University of Nebraska-Lincoln
An improved LS-DYNA® model of 19-mm diameter 3x7 wire rope commonly used in roadside cable guardrail installations has been developed. A Belytschko-Schwer beam element was selected along with material *MAT_MOMENT_CURVATURE_BEAM. Based on physical testing, total axial load vs. true strain and bending moment vs. curvature were generated for use in the model. Since wire rope displays internal damping due to friction of strands and wires, ...
Module Development of Multiphase and Chemically Reacting Flow in LS-DYNA® Compressible Flow Solver
Kyoung-Su Im, Zeng-Chan Zhang, Grant Cook, Jr. - Livermore Software Technology Corp.
We reported a significant progress of the simulation module developments such as the cavitation, supersonic heterogeneous combustion, and gaseous detonations for the compressible flow solver. The homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM) based on the acoustic speed of the mixture of liquid and vapor was implemented for automotive diesel injectors, where the cavitation effects should correctly predict for the nozzle design. The heterogeneous ...
Multi-Disciplinary Optimization of a Sedan Using Size and Shape Parameterization
Nitin Sharma, Suthan, Jim Colins, Basant Sharma - Detroit Engineered Products Inc., Troy, MI
In vehicle development activity there are different disciplines with their own set of requirements that need to satisfied in order to get a successful product. Traditionally, the simulations were performed for different disciplines but at the time of optimization, Single Discipline Optimization (SDO) was usually performed and later confirmatory runs were done for the other disciplines. This process resulted in a time consuming loop of running ...
New Developments of Frequency Domain Acoustic Methods in LS-DYNA
Yun Huang - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
Mhamed Souli - University of Lille
Rongfeng Liu - JSOL Corporation
This paper presents the new developments of finite element methods and boundary element methods for solving vibro-acoustic problems in LS-DYNA. The formulation for a frequency domain finite element method based on Helmholtz equation is described and the solution for an example of a simplified compartment model is presented. For boundary element method, the theory basis is reviewed. A benchmark example of a plate is solved by boundary element ...
New Features in LS-DYNA HYBRID Version
Nick Meng - Intel Corporation
Jason Wang, Satish Pathy - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
Numerical noise arising from different MPP core counts compels users to fix the number of cores used by LS- DYNA® MPP e.g. during a vehicle development program. This fixed core count limits job turn-around time and flexibility in managing computing resources. In addition, using a large number of cores for calculations diminishes scalability with pure MPP. LS-DYNA® HYBRID addresses these issues through the use of both MPI + OpenMP technology. ...
Numerical Prediction of the Dynamic Response of Prestressed Concrete Box Girder Bridges Under Blast Loads
Ahmed Ibrahim, Hani Salim - University of Missouri
Significant research has been performed on the response and retrofit of buildings under blast loads. Limited research exists on the response prediction and protection of bridges under near-field blast loads. This research focuses on the evaluation and assessment of box girder bridges under blast loads. The objective of this research is to develop a numerical model to predict the damage level in a concrete deck under blast loading and ...
Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of Electromagnetic Forming
Jianhui Shang, Larry Wilkerson, Steve Hatkevich - American Trim LLC
Pierre L’Eplattenier - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
Compared to traditional sheet metal forming, electromagnetic forming (EMF) has several advantages, such as increased formability, cost savings and improved flexibility. There are many EMF applications in sheet meal forming, especially for aluminum alloys, because aluminum alloys have relatively low formability and high conductivity when compared to steel. The EMF process uses magnetic field generated by a conductive actuator upon large ...
On the Prony Relaxation Function
William W. Feng, John O. Hallquist - Livermore Software Technology Corp.
For solving viscoelastic problems, the constitutive equations involve convolution integrals with relaxation functions. The relaxation function, G (t ) , is often written in Prony series...
Optimization Techniques in Conjunction with Complex ATD FE Models Using LS-DYNA
John Cooper, Dr. Hyunsok Pang, Matthew McCann, Dr. Ron Averill - Denton ATD, Inc and Red Cedar Technologies, Inc
This paper discusses the optimization methods used by Denton to create FE ATD models. Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs also known as Dummies) are manufactured with a variety of hyperelastic and viscoelastic materials. The production processes used to manufacture ATD’s result in variations between dummies that can have a significant influence on dummy performance. In addition the load cases present during testing with ATDs are very complex ...
Overview of LSTC’s LS-DYNA Anthropomorphic Models
Christoph Maurath, Sarba Guha, Dilip Bhalsod, Mike Burger, Jacob Krebs, Suri Bala - LSTC
Sebastian Stahlschmidt, Reuben D'Souza - DYNAmore GmbH
Pradeep Mohan, Dhafer Marzougui - The George Washington University
The paper gives an overview of LSTC's LS-DYNA crash test dummy model development effort. The model development process is outlined. Details of all released models are presented. The development status of models currently under development is addressed. Outlook to future models is given.
Predicting the Dynamic Crushing Response of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber Using Solid-Element-Based Models in LS-DYNA
Karen E. Jackson - NASA Langley Research Center
This paper describes an analytical study that was performed as part of the development of an externally deployable energy absorber (DEA) concept. The concept consists of a composite honeycomb structure that can be stowed until needed to provide energy attenuation during a crash event, much like an external airbag system. One goal of the DEA development project was to generate a robust and reliable Finite Element Model (FEM) of the DEA that ...
Prediction of Springback in CNC Tube Bending Process Based on Forming Parameters
Levent Sözen, Mehmet A. Guler, Recep M. Görgülüarslan, Engin M. Kaplan - University of Economics and Technology
CNC tube bending machines are commonly used in several industries such as automotive, aerospace and shipping. Especially in automotive industry, usage of tube formed geometries is common because they provide weight reduction without loss of strength. Obtaining desired dimensions and geometries is a necessity for design engineers to achieve high quality end-products. One of the easiest ways of having high quality tube formed end- products ...
Process Modeling of Freeform Incremental Forming Using LS-DYNA
Feng Ren, Zhen Cui, Z. Cedric Xia - Ford Motor Company
Todd Slavik, Li Zhang and Xinhai Zhu - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a manufacturing process for sheet metal prototyping where the blank is incrementally deformed into a desired shape by one or more stylus tools traveling along a prescribed path. Conventional ISF can be categorized into two types, Single-Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) where the sheet metal is formed from one side by a single stylus tool; and Double-Point Incremental Forming (DPIF) where a die positioned ...
Recent Developments in JSTAMP/NV for the Best Stamping Simulation Environment
Yuji Kato, Yasuyoshi Umezu, Yuko Watanabe - JSOL Corporation
In recent years, expectations for stamping simulation systems have increased in stamping die design process, as the needs for lightweight products and short production lead time have grown. Aiming at the best stamping simulation environment, JSOL Corporation has been developing JSTAMP/NV since 1996. One of the most competitive advantages of JSTAMP/NV is accurate prediction of deformation and formability by explicit and implicit solutions in ...
Recent Improvements to Release III of the K&C Concrete Model
Joseph M. Magallanes, Youcai Wu, John E. Crawford - Karagozian & Case
L. Javier Malvar - Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center
Recent improvements are made to Release III of the Karagozian & Case (K&C) concrete model. This three- invariant plasticity and damage-based constitutive model is widely used to model a number of materials, including normal and lightweight concrete, concrete masonry, and brick masonry, to compute the effects of quasi-static, blast, and impact loads on structures. This most recent version of the model, made available starting with ...
Response of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Instrument Under Shock Loading
M. Nejad Ensan, D.G. Zimcik - National Research Council Canada
Spacecraft components encounter mechanical shock from a variety of sources. Components must withstand a series of flight shock pulses, and must be designed and tested accordingly to ensure reliability. This paper presents simulation of the response of the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) instrument to the shock loading, during payload separation, using LS-DYNA® nonlinear finite element analysis software. Details of the model and ...
Safety Assessment and Multi-Objective Optimization of a Paratransit Bus Structure
Cezary Bojanowski - Argonne National Laboratory
Ronald F. Kulak - RFK Engineering Mechanics Consultants
Paratransit buses are used in the U.S. as a complementary service for regularly scheduled routes and are usually designed to transport disabled passengers in their wheelchairs. Paratransit buses consist of custom passenger compartments mounted onto separate cutaway chassis--usually built by reputable manufacturer like Ford or GM-- by a secondary manufacturer called a “body builder”. The lack of dedicated national crashworthiness ...
Side Impact Occupant Modeling Practices in Comparison to Test Results
Skye Malcolm, Brian O’Hara, Craig Markusic, Bryant Whitcomb - Honda R&D Americas, Inc.
Ram R. Songade - Altair Engineering, Inc.
A methodology to obtain and estimate the second row dummy response during the FMVSS 214 Barrier Side Impact test is described. Because of the limited amount of space between the occupant and the car structure, it is challenging to manage and predict the energy distribution in the FMVSS 214 crash mode. Increasing use of Finite Element models provides an edge in product development and its use is increasing as development time is reducing. For ...
Simulation of a Thin Walled Aluminum Tube Subjected to Base Acceleration Using LS-DYNA's Vibro-Acoustic Solver
Ofir Shor, Yoav Lev -Rafael
Yun Huang - LSTC
A shaker table test, where a simple thin walled aluminum tube was base accelerated at two geometrical locations, was simulated using the vibro-acoustic solver of LS-DYNA. It was shown that the method of modeling the fixture of the tube to the shaker table's moving plate had a great impact on the simulation result. Three modeling methods of the fixture were tested, and acceleration PSD results at various points along the tube were compared to ...
Simulation of Granular Ceramic Armor Under Impact from Bullets
James G. McLean, Seth Frutiger, Robert Dabek, Jeremy Reeves - State University of New York at Geneseo
Ballistic impact is studied for a novel form of armor, granular ceramic armor. Ceramic granules, in the millimeter size range, are closely packed and bonded together using a relatively soft polymer. This composite layer rests on a rigid backing. In field tests such panels have already shown the capability to stop armor piercing rifle rounds. The goal of the study is to determine the detailed mechanisms of energy and momentum dissipation. ...
Solid Elements with Rotational Degree of Freedom for Grand Rotation Problems in LS-DYNA
Hailong Teng - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
The goal of this paper is to further enhance the solid elements with rotational degree of freedom (DOF). Three- dimensional finite elements with rotational degree of freedom have been proposed elsewhere, however, these elements are restricted to linear analysis. In this paper, by improving the mid-side node velocity update algorithm, we enhance the elements performance. Numerical results are presented, showing that the enhanced elements ...
Stone Skipping Simulation by ALE and SPH
Mitsuhiro Makino - Dynapower Corporation
Stone skipping is the play at sea shore and river. The flat stone, which is thrown, skips on the surface of water. This phenomena is simulated by ALE and SPH capability of LS-DYNA®. The dependency of the parameters such as the angle between stone and water, incident angle of stone will discuss.
Structure-Fluid Interaction Analysis of an Existing Water Tank
Mohammad Ghorbanie, Glen Norlander - AMEC Americas
An analytical study was completed investigating the cause and consequences of significant vibrations resulting from the operation of a hot water storage tank. Deformations and strain readings of the tank wall were measured during the operation and used to calibrate and validate results from the analytical model. The steel storage tank is supported on a concrete foundation. The diameter of the tank is 18 meters and the height is 28 meters. ...
Study of Thin-Walled Box Beams Crushing Behavior Using LS-DYNA
Yucheng Liu - University of Louisiana
This paper investigates the dynamic crushing behaviors of steel beams with box cross sections. Systematic parametric studies were conducted in order to reveal the effect of material properties, including strain hardening ratio and strain rate effect, length of the beam, and initial impact velocity on the crushing behaviors of the steel beams. A number of finite element models were constructed with various sets of parameters and used ...
The Performance of Car Crash Simulation by LS-DYNA Hybrid Parallel Version on Fujitsu FX1
Kenshiro Kondo - Fujitsu Limited
Mitsuhiro Makino - DYNAPOWER Corporation
The number of elements of car simulation for crash analysis has increased rapidly over recent years in order to achieve better accuracy. Several MPP versions of LS-DYNA using variations of MPI have been widely applied to car crash simulation for better job turnaround. The modern computing hardware has been exploring multi-core CPU technology since the performance of single-core can not meet the current and future demands. The Hybrid ...
The Potential Impact of GPUs on LS-DYNA Implicit
Roger Grimes, Robert Lucas, and Gene Wagenbreth - Livermore Software Technology Corp.
This talk will report the on-going efforts of LSTC to study the impact of GPUs on LS-DYNA. GPUs offer very high performance computational power at the cost of importing and exporting of data between the host computer and the GPU. The GPU has restricted memory, requires programming in a special language, and suffers performance reduction for double precision arithmetic. Still GPUs appear to offer a potential speed-up of a factor of 2 to ...
The Recent Progress and Potential Applications of Corpuscular Method in LS-DYNA
Hailong Teng, Jason Wang, Dilip Bhalsod - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
The corpuscular method is a coarse-grained muti-scale method developed for gas dynamics simulation. It is based on the kinetic molecular theory, where molecules are viewed as rigid particles obeying Newton’s laws of mechanics. Each particle in the corpuscular method represents a group of gas molecules. The only particle-particle and particle--fabric interactions are perfectly elastic collisions. The corpuscular method has been applied to ...
Usage of LS-DYNA in the Development of Professional Hammer Drills
A. Syma - Black & Decker GmbH
M. Hörmann - CADFEM GmbH
The development of modern electric power tools for professional use requires special attention. Characteristic aspects such as efficiency and user comfort along with robustness and durability are always of importance to the manufacturer. For the fulfillment of these attributes computer-aided simulation combined with the finite element software LS-DYNA® is a central point during the development process at Black & Decker GmbH, i.e. from ...
Use of LS-DYNA to Assess the Energy Absorption Performance of a Shell-Based KevlarTM/Epoxy Composite Honeycomb
Michael Polanco - NASA Langley Research Center
The forward and vertical impact stability of a composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) was evaluated during a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter at NASA Langley’s Landing and Impact Research Facility. The lower skin of the helicopter was retrofitted with DEA components to protect the airframe subfloor upon impact and to mitigate loads transmitted to Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) occupants. To facilitate the design ...
Using LS-DYNA to Computationally Assess the V0-V100 Impact Response of Flexible Fabrics Through Probabilistic Methods
Gaurav Nilakantan, Michael Keefe, John W. Gillespie Jr. - University of Delaware
Eric D. Wetzel, Travis A. Bogetti, Rob Adkinson - US Army Research Laboratory
The probabilistic nature of the impact performance of flexible woven fabrics arises from a number of sources. The statistical nature of yarn tensile strengths on impact response is modeled in this study. Currently the probability of penetration of a fabric at a given velocity (Vx is the impact velocity having a probability of penetration of x ranging from 0 to 100%) is determined experimentally, by shooting fabric panels over a range of ...
Validation of Material Models for the Numerical Simulation of Aluminum Foams
Marco Perillo, Vito Primavera - EnginSoft SpA
A. Carofalo, M. De Giorgi, R. Nobile - University of Salento
In the last years a lot of studies dealt with the material modeling of metallic foams, especially for the Aluminum ones. All these activities were performed especially for automotive field applications because the high energy- absorbing property of such foams fits very well the requirement to carry impacting loads efficiently. In spite of this, the industrial applications are not yet so widespread both for manufacturing costs and for a lack ...