Personal tools
Home 7th European LS-DYNA Conference

restrict search to current section
For a simple text search, enter your search term here. Multiple words may be found by combining them with AND and OR. The text in this field will be matched with items' contents, title and description.


7th European LS-DYNA Conference

Development of numerical models for the investigation of motorcyclists accidents
Mazdak Ghajari, Lorenzo Iannucci - Imperial College London
Caroline Deck, Remy Willinger - Strasbourg University
Ugo Galvanetto - Padova University
The Finite Element (FE) method was employed to develop and enhance numerical models that can be used for simulating accidents involving motorcyclists. They are the FE models of a commercial helmet, the human head and the Hybrid III dummy. The composite shell and foam liner of the helmet, which are the most important components in terms of energy absorption, were generated using the Ls-Dyna preprocessing software. The FE model of the human ...
Development of the PDB WorldSID 50th Model with the German Automotive Industry
A. Gromer, S. Stahlschmidt, R. D'Souza - DYNAmore
In times where simulation methods are well-established in Vehicle Passive Safety Development, it is indispensable to provide a virtual equivalent of current hardware dummies. Thus, German car manufacturers decided to build up a WSID50th finite element model. Due to the experience of former FAT dummy development projects, the processing of the WSID50th model achieves a high efficiency level. The project started with building up a model using ...
Developments in Finite Element Safety Models
J. Rasico - FTSS
FTSS has been providing Finite Element models to the safety community for over a decade. This has resulted in an expansive family of; commonly used Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs), dummies primed for future regulation, and complimentary safety tools for the examination of unique protection systems, such as ejection mitigation. In conjunction, the last 10 years have seen a continuous demand for increased quality and functionality of ...
Drop Test Analysis of a Lamy Pencil
Dr.-Ing Matthias Hörmann, Steffen Schiele - CADFEM GmbH
Reinhard Probol - LAMY GmbH
Consumer products like cell phones, personal digital assistants, dish washers or cookers, to name just a view of them, are often exposed to drop during transportation to the customer and during usage in life time. Pre-damage, failure or malfunction due to drop is typically not acceptable and will lead to refusal through the costumer in addition with a correspondingly amount of financial and prestige loss. The present work deals with the ...
Dynamic Simulation of Mechatronic Systems
R.Cresnik, A.Rieser, H. Schluder - Virtual Vehicle
A growing number of safety systems are implemented in modern vehicles. Thereby vehicles become more complex and in succession the quantity of potential error causes is increasing. Numerical simulation and prototype tests are used to investigate vehicle behaviour and prevent aberrations at an early stage. However, prototype tests on full vehicle level are not feasible in early development stages. Numerical simulation is an effective tool ...
Early Design Validation of Vehicle Interiors for FMVSS 201 using IHIT and LS-DYNA
Arun Chickmenahalli - International Automotive Components
Suthy C. Sivalingam - ESI North America
Thomas Weninger - ESI-Group
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fracture in Aluminium
P. Du Bois - Consultant
Prof. S. Kan, M. Buyuk - George Washington University
J. He - Engineering Technology Associates
To assess the problem of containment after a blade-off accident in an aero-engine by numerical simulation the FAA has instigated a research effort concerning failure prediction in a number of relevant materials. Aluminium kicked off the program which involved an intensive testing program providing failure data under different states of stress, different strain rates and different temperatures. In particular split Hopkinson bars were used to ...
Experimental and Simulation Characterization of the Suspension of a Small Car
W. Tiu - University Hertfordshire
This paper will describe the work carried out to compare the experimental response of the car using a four actuator vibration rig and that obtained from an LS-dyna analysis using the same loading spectrum as that used in the physical experiment. The public domain frontal crash FE model was modified to reduce the solution time. Most of the materials used in the panels were changed to rigid as these were not expected to deform during a ...
Finite element development and early experimental validations for a three dimensional virtual model of a bus
Prof. Dr. Mariano Pernetti, Dr. Salvatore Scalera - AMET ITALY
Road safety barriers in Europe have to fulfil the European standard EN 1317, which defines a set of crash tests for each safety barriers containment levels. Full scale tests of vehicle collision against road safety barriers have a huge importance to assess the outcomes of real accidents and, more in general, to identify barriers and vehicles features which influence crashworthiness in a meaningful manner. On the other hand, this kind of ...
Finite Element Modeling of the Arresting Gear and Simulation of the Aircraft Deck Landing Dynamics
Dmitriy Mikhaluk, Igor Voinov, Prof. Alexey Borovkov - CompMechLab of St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University
Deck arresting gear is a special aero-carrier unit that is destined to provide an efficient arrestment of the deck jet-fighters of masses 10-25 tons with high landing velocities between 180 and 240 km/h. Main elements of the modern arresting gear are a cable and a hydraulic system. During deck landing the jet-fighter grasps the cable with a hook and draws it. The cable is threaded between a system of blocks, that are forming a ...
Finite element modeling of the ITER superconducting cables mechanical behaviour using LS-DYNA code
A.S. Nemov , A.I. Borovkov - St.Petersburg State Polytechnical University
B.A. Schrefler - University of Padua
Superconducting cables are one of the key technical solutions used for generation of strong magnetic field in modern tokamaks. It is very important for engineers to be able to predict the mechanical deformations of superconducting cables because superconductivity depends on strains, temperature and magnetic field. Superconducting cables for ITER the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor [1] currently under construction, ...
Forming limit diagrams with an FE-based approach for sheets under non-proportional loading
A. Reyes, O. S. Hopperstad - Norwegian University of Science and Technology
T. Berstad, O.-G. Lademo - Norwegian University of Science and Technology/ SINTEF Materials and Chemistry
In this study, LS-DYNA was used to predict the experimental forming limit diagrams (FLDs) for pre- strained sheets in aluminum alloy Al2008-T4 found by Graf and Hosford [1]. The original data of Graf and Hosford [1] includes numerous pre-straining situations, but it was here chosen only to investigate pre-straining by biaxial and uniaxial tension. In order to generate the FLDs, several analyses of a square patch were run systematically to ...
Forming simulations based on parameters obtained in microstructural cold rolling simulations in comparison to conventional forming simulations
Sebastian Lossau - Daimler AG
Bob Svendsen - TU-Dortmund
This work demonstrates a first approach of using virtually obtained material properties as input for forming simulations. The necessary parameters to apply a Barlat-Lian89 yield surface are computed in the so called “Virtual Lab”, which performs FE-simulations on previously cold rolled volume elements to predict the distribution of grains. The resultant stress-strain-curves serve as input parameter for a deep drawing simulation. For ...
From 6 months to 6 weeks "Multi Disciplinary Optimisation MDO"
Dr Tayeb Zeguer - Jaguar Landrover
The traditional new-vehicle design cycle is very time consuming due to the sequential approach used. The need to reduce time to market for new vehicles as well as the increased affordability of high- performance computing, which can process hundreds of simulations concurrently, has led to the increased adoption of MDO processes. The goal of an MDO is to provide a more consistent, formalized process for complex system design than that found ...
Geometry-Based Topology Optimization - Improving Head Impact Performance of an Engine Hood
D. Weiss, B. Sonntag, T. Krumenaker, Dr. D. Nowottny, Dr. J. Sprave, W. Hipp - Daimler AG
The actual paper introduces the integration of LS-DYNA and CATIA V5 into automatic geometry- based topology optimization of an engine hood regarding pedestrian head impact. In current design processes, such Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, along with structural optimization, have become essential elements to provide efficient and reliable structures. However, the required iterative process of adjusting steps between simulation and ...
Global Sensitivity Analysis in Structural Optimization
Uwe Reuter - TU Dresden
Martin Liebscher, Heiner Müllerschön - DYNAmore GmbH
The main purpose of global sensitivity analysis is to identify the most significant model parameters affect- ing a specific model response. This helps engineers to improve the model understanding and provides valueable information to reduce the computational effort in structural optimization. A structural optimiza- tion is characterized by a set of design parameters, constraints and objective functions formulated on basis of model responses. ...
Grouping detection of uncertain structural process by means of cluster analysis
Aleksandra Piotrow, Stephan Pannier, Wolfgang Graf - TU Dresden
Martin Liebscher - DYNAmore GmbH
Structural analysis under consideration of the uncertainty of input parameters, such as loads, material, and geometry leads to uncertain time-dependent results. Such uncertain structural process shows for the uncertain input parameters all possible behaviours of a structure. Modelling of uncertainty in input parameters when only incomplete or expert knowledge based information is available requires the introduction of the uncertainty model ...
Handling of large LS-Dyna Full Vehicle Crash Models with TECOSIM-advanced inhouse process Tools
D. Lopez, U. Jankowski, S. Oldenburg - TECOSIM GmbH
Based on several years of CAE experience TECOSIM has developed an advanced inhouse CAE process. Each TECOSIM tool was developed on the basis of TECOSIM internal projects as well as several projects carried out successfully at customers’ site. All tools used in this process are able to run as stand-alone solutions, but the combination of them provides a very effective CAE process, thus reducing the entire vehicle development cost. The TECOSIM ...
Head injury prediction tool for protective systems optimisation
Deck Caroline, Willinger Rémy - Strasbourg University
This paper presents an original numerical human head FE models followed by its modal and temporal validation against human head vibration analysis in vivo and cadaver impact tests from the literature. The human head FE model developed presents two particularities : one at the brain-skull interface level were fluid-structure interaction is taken into account, the other at the skull modelling level by integrating the bone fracture simulation. ...
Hewlett Packard - Simulation Drives Move to Virtual Prototyping
Surviving the economic slowdown by increasing cost-saving technology: Don’t spend more; spend more effectively Today’s trends - more complex features, increased global competition, and more government regulations - increase automakers’ reliance on CAE simulations HP and Intel help automakers maneuver through the obstacles by providing innovative technologies that boost computational performance and lower costs
High Performance Computing with CUDA and Tesla Hardware
Dr Timothy Lanfear - NVIDIA
The NVIDIA® TeslaTM C1060 transforms a workstation into a high-performance computing machine that outperforms a small cluster. This gives technical professionals a dedicated computing resource at their desk-side that is much faster and more energy-efficient than a shared cluster in the data centre. The Tesla C1060 is based on the massively parallel, many-core Tesla processor, which is coupled with the standard CUDA C programming environment ...
High Speed Impact - Test and Simulation
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Stefan Hiermaier , Matthias Boljen, Dr. Ingmar Rohr - Fraunhofer-Institute for High-Speed-Dynamics
Deformation processes of structures under dynamic loading have been investigated both experimentally and by simulation for many years now. Various rate dependencies in many materials, wave and shock wave phenomena as well as material tests for their quantitative description have been identified. In parallel, mathematical formulations for the observed material behavior and numerical schemes for time dependent approximations of the governing ...
High-Mass, Low-Velocity Impacts on Reinforced Concrete Slabs
A. J. Sangi, I. M. May- Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh
The behaviour of reinforced concrete in quasi static regimes has been investigated extensively but there have been few investigations into its transient behaviour, especially under low velocity regimes. This paper describes the finite element modelling and analysis of reinforced concrete slabs under drop-weight impact loads using LS-DYNA. The results obtained from the numerical simulations have been compared with tests that were carried out ...
Identification of an advanced hardening model for single phase steels
Muhammad Noman, Bob Svendsen - University of Dortmund
Sheet metal forming processes cover a wide range of applications in industry. In order to model sheet metal forming processes using numerical simulation an accurate description of the material behavior is required. To this end a material model has been implemented which is capable of capturing the move- ment and proportional expansion of the yield surface along with the change in the shape of the yield surface. The former is described as ...
Improved Tool development Process for novel SCS Technology for Aluminium Sheet Metal
Apostolos Papaioanu, Prof. Dr. Mathias Liewald MBA - Institut für Umformtechnik, Stuttgart
Ralf Schleich - HochschulInstitute Neckarsulm, Neckarsulm
Today’s stretch forming technologies mainly are used for production of large and flat parts made of sheet metal mainly for the aircraft industry (wing fabrication) and for shipbuilding. Because of the high investment costs and high process time, the use of such conventional stretch forming technologies is not qualified for production of car body panels. However, benefits of present stretch forming methods such as improvement of the ...
Improvements and Validation of an Existing LS-DYNA Model of the Knee-Thigh-Hip of a 50th Percentile Male Including Muscles and Ligaments
Dr. Chiara Silvestri, Mario Mongiardini, Prof. Dr. Malcolm H. Ray - Worcester Polytechnic Institute
A detailed review of an existing LSDYNA finite element (FE) model of the Knee-Thigh-Hip (KTH) of a 50th percentile male was accomplished. The main scope was to refine some aspects of the model for obtaining a more appropriate and biofidelic tool for injury mechanics investigation of the KTH in frontal car crashes. Detailed reviews of this model were performed with regards to material properties of the bone models used for representation of ...
Improving Analysis Accuracy By Modeling rivets/bolts As Solids In Sheet Metal Structure
Ashok L. Ramteke,Ph.D, Prasad B. Nadgouda - Hema Engineering Industries Limited,
In general, main assembly consists of different sub-assemblies. These sub-assemblies are joined together using rivets/bolts, welds etc. Individual subassembly is often verified for performance using commercial CAE software. To save time, rivet/bolt joints are usually modeled with beam-spider arrangement. Spider represents the rivet/bolt head and a beam connecting two spiders at the centre represents the rivet/bolt diameter. Analyst’s always ...
Integration of Morphing and Optimization with the CAx-Load Case Composer at AUDI
Dr. Holger Meissner - AUDI AG
Marko Thiele - DYNAmore GmbH
The increasing demand to evaluate vast amounts of different load cases has led to a highly standardized and automated way of model assembling at AUDI. This model assembling is greatly assisted by the software “CAx Load Case Composer” which has been developed by DYNAmore in cooperation with AUDI. The Loadcase Composer (LoCo) provides the user with convenient ways to manage FE-model include files and allows to automatically select appropriate ...
Integrative Optimization of injection-molded plastic parts - Multidisciplinary Shape Optimization including process induced properties
Andreas Wüst, Torsten Hensel, Dirk Jansen - BASF SE
The Integrative Approach described in this paper incorporates effects of the part’s manufacturing process (here: injection molding) into a new workflow for optimization of the part performance. The new approach is able to close the gap between process simulation/optimization and mechanical simulation/optimization. New classes of design variables linked to the manufacturing process complicate the workflow of the optimization. The newly ...
Investigation of Accuracy Improvement on Crashworthiness Simulation with Pre-Simulation of Metal Forming.
To improve the accuracy of crashworthiness simulation, it is preferable to consider the effects of metal forming. However, this approach was difficult in practice since analyzing the stamping simulation in detail requires much work. This paper describes the influence of residual strain, work hardening and material thickness changes resulting from the stamping process on the crashworthiness simulation. In almost all impact load cases, the ...
Investigation on Simulation of Buckling of Aluminium Sheet Alloys
Ralf Schleich - HochschulInstitute Neckarsulm
Christoph Albiez - AUDI AG
Apostolos Papaioanu, Prof. Dr. M. Liewald MBA - Universität Stuttgart
The lack of accuracy of buckling prediction in forming simulation is widely known. This is mainly caused by insufficient element stiffness as well as a very simplified strain path but not sheet thickness dependent buckling criterion. Within this contribution a methodology for investigating such issue is developed. This paper also reveals possibilities concerning an experimental analysis of buckling sensitivity of AA6016 aluminium sheet metal ...
Latest Development in Oasys PRIMER
Latest developments in Crash Pre Processing and Post Processing. Innovative Ideas brought to the Industry with ANSA and μETA.
L. Rorris, D. Siskos, Y. Kolokythas - BETA CAE Systems SA
The increasingly demanding and complex requirements in Crash Analysis, require continues and innovative software development. BETA CAE Systems in an effort to meet, and exceed, the demands of the industry is introducing new cutting edge technologies. Both in the pre processing area with ANSA, and in post processing with μETA. This paper presents these new technologies. With the introduction of a new version of ANSA in 2009 a new user ...
Layout, Validation and Benchmark of an all new Frontal Offset Barrier FEM Model
Bernhard Fellner - Magna Steyr Fahrzeugtechnik AG & CoKG
Thomas Jost - Das Virtuelle Fahrzeug Forschungsgesellschaft mbH
For the customer, passive safety is one of the driving reasons for the decision when buying a new car. To ensure high safety standards, passive safety is demonstrated in vehicle crash tests. Instead of vehicle to vehicle crash tests, one vehicle is replaced by an aluminium honeycomb based crash barrier. This barrier represents the front of a vehicle by the shape, the deformation behaviour and the energy absorption. Using Finite Element ...
LS-DYNA Productivity and Power-aware Simulations in Cluster Environments
Gilad Shainer, Tong Liu - Mellanox Technologies
Jacob Liberman, Jeff Layton, Onur Celebioglu - Dell, Inc.
Scot A. Schultz, Joshua Mora, David Cownie - Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)
Ron Van Holst - Platform Computing
From concept to engineering and from design to test and manufacturing; engineering relies on powerful virtual development solutions. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are used in an effort to secure quality and speed up the development process. Cluster solutions maximize the total value of ownership for FEA and CFD environments and extend innovation in virtual product development. Multi-core cluster ...
LS-DYNA used to analyze the drawing of precision tubes
Prof. Dr.techn. Joachim Danckert, Dr. Benny Endelt - Aalborg University, Denmark
Long precision tubes are commonly made using the floating plug tube drawing process. The process has been analyzed using various methods e.g. upper bound method and FEM [1-10]. The die land and the plug land are usually cylindrical and form a cylindrical bearing channel between the die land and the plug land. The influence from the length of the bearing channel on the drawing force has only been dealt with in very few papers. In [2] it is ...
MADYMO and LS-DYNA; the Strength of a Combined Approach
F. Schoenmakers - TASS
While safety legislation becomes more stringent and vehicles intended for global markets must conform to the requirements of a wider range of regulatory bodies, the cost of physically testing crash safety performance continues to rise and the vehicle safety system design is under high pressure to adopt virtual development techniques. Structural analysis and safety system optimization have traditionally been undertaken in two ...
S. Kolling, M. Neubert - Giessen University of Applied Sciences
J. Subke, J. Griesemann - Biomechanics Lab
An experimental setup is presented for the material characterization of rubber-like sensomotoric insoles. This setup consists of local hardness measurements, quasi-static compression tests and dynamic testing using the 4a Impetus II pendulum test system [1]. A correlation between the measure of shore hardness and the stress strain relation of rubber-like materials is presented and verified in order to consider the inhomogeneous properties of ...
Micromechanics analysis applied to the modelling of aluminium honeycomb and EPS foam composites
Gaetano Caserta, Lorenzo Iannucci - Imperial College London
Ugo Galvanetto - Padova University
A 3D Finite Element model of an innovative composite material, configured as a layer of expanded aluminium honeycomb placed on top of a layer of expanded polystyrene foam, has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from quasi-static tests. Ls-Prepost was used to generate the model. Ls-Dyna was used to simulate the behaviour of this material under compressive loads. The objective was to reproduce deformation ...
Modelling and predicting spotweld failures in automotive crash structures
Dr. P.K.C.Wood, Dr. C.A.Schley, Mr. R.Beaumont - IARC, University of Warwick, UK
Dr. B.Walker - ARUP, ARUP Campus, Blythe Valley Business Park, UK
Mr. T.Dutton - Dutton Simulation Ltd, Kenilworth, UK
Mr. M.A.Buckley - Jaguar Land Rover, UK
The project has developed spotweld failure models capable of industry application for a range of steel grades to support development of automotive products, and their compliance to international crash safety requirements. An important consideration in this project is a requirement to balance the cost to develop the data input to models and their application capability in CAE based crash simulation tools to predict spotweld failures. Shear ...
Modelling of ductile failure in metal forming
H.H. Wisselink, J. Huetink - Materials Innovation Institute (M2i) / University of Twente
Damage and fracture are important criteria in the design of products and processes. Damage mod- els can be used to predict ductile failure in metal forming processes. Nonlocal models avoid the mesh dependency problems of local damage models. A nonlocal damage model has been implemented in LS- DYNA using the user-subroutines UMAT and UCTRL1. The implemented model will be compared with results obtained with the available option in LS-DYNA to ...
Modelling of the deformation and fracture behaviour of laser welds for crash simulation
Silke Sommer - Fraunhofer Institut Werkstoffmechanik IWM
Frederik Klokkers - Laboratorium für Werkstoff- und Fügetechnik LWF
The light weight potential in automobile fabrication is increasing due to the development of new high strength steels. The realisation of this potential requires the use of adjusted joining techniques for the combination of optimized material properties with optimized joint properties. With the development of laser welding to a series-production technology a joining technique is available to practise the light weight potential of high ...
Modelling of the dynamics of a 40 mm gun and ammunition system during firing
N. Eches, D.Cosson - Nexter Munitions
Q. Lambert - C.T.A. International
A. Langlet - C.T.A. International / Université d’Orléans
J. Renard - Université d’Orléans
This paper deals with the development of a finite element model of a 40 mm Case Telescoped Ammunition and its associated gun, able to describe the in-bore travel of the projectile during firing. This work is part of a PhD thesis, supervised by CTA International and the PRISME Institute, dedicated to the study of the parameters relevant to the accuracy of the Kinetic Energy Round. In order to conduct efficient parametric studies, they asked ...
Modelling the dynamic magneto-thermomechanical behaviour of materials using a multi-phase EOS.
Le Blanc Gaël, Jacques Petit, Pierre-Yves Chanal - Centre d’Etudes de Gramat
L’Eplattenier Pierre - LSTC, Livermore
Avrillaud Gilles - ITHPP
For several years the “Centre d’Etudes de Gramat (CEG)” has been studying the behaviour of materials by means of experimental devices using High Pulsed Powers technologies. Among them, GEPI is a pulsed power generator devoted to ramp wave (quasi isentropic) compression experiment in the 1 GPa to 100 GPa pressure range. It may also produce non shocked high velocity flyer plates in the 0.1 km/s to 10 km/s range of velocity. The basic principle ...
Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization exploiting the efficiency of ANSA-LSOPT-META coupling
Korbetis Georgios, Siskos Dimitrios - BETA CAE Systems S.A
Simple optimization techniques may serve well for the improvement of product performance at early concept design phases. At final phases though, optimization problems become more complex, with many variables and multiple optimum solutions. This leads to the need for the deployment of multi- disciplinary optimization techniques where many different load cases and analysis types, such as for Crash, NVH, CFD etc., are combined to achieve the ...
Multi-Scale Modeling of Crash & Failure of Reinforced Plastics Parts with DIGIMAT to LS-DYNA interface
L. Adam, A. Depouhon, R. Assaker - e-Xstream engineering
This paper deals with the prediction of the overall behavior of polymer matrix composites and structures, based on mean-field homogenization. We present the basis of the mean-field homogenization incremental formulation and illustrate the method through the analysis of the impact properties of fiber reinforced structures. The present formulation is part of the DIGIMAT [1] software, and its interface to LS-DYNA, enabling multi-scale FE ...
New Design of Roadside Pole Structure: Crash Analysis of Different Longitudinal Tubes using LS-DYNA
Dr. Ahmed Elmarakbi, Mr. Niki Fielding - University of Sunderland, United Kingdom
This paper is an investigation into the design of an energy absorbing street pole, concerning the frontal impact of a vehicle. With design engineers now are looking at other ways to improve vehicle occupant safety by focusing on the advantages that can be achieved by improving the crashworthiness of street furniture. The study of axial crush behaviour of metal materials are investigated along with a number of variables such as ...
New Features in LS-DYNA EFG Method for Solids and Structures Analysis
C. T. Wu - LSTC
In this presentation, an update on LS-DYAN EFG method for solids and structures analysis will be given. Several features were developed in the past two years to solve specific challenging problems as well as to improve the efficiency. This talk will emphasize on three new features including an adaptive Meshfree scheme based on a local Maximum Entropy approximation for metal forging and extrusion analysis, a semi-Lagrangain formulation in ...
New Features of LS-PrePost 3.0
Philip Ho - LSTC
The introduction of the new LS-PrePost 3.0 will be presented here. A completely redesigned graphical user interface has been implemented in the new version of LS-PrePost 3.0. Tool bars and icons are being used for the main manual system to replace the old text based button system. The icons can be set to have text or without text. The new interface provides the maximum possible graphical area for the model rendering at the same time allow ...
New Method to Characterize Airbag Inflators On the Way to OoP Simulation
Juan Fernández - Takata-Petri AG
An accurate Out-of-Position (OoP) simulation will be a mile stone for the development of restraint systems, as this would save hundreds of expensive hardware tests. OoP load cases are currently required by the US legislation and as in-house specification by many car manufactures for other markets. But simulating OoP is a difficult issue, as several challenges have to be addressed, for example: An improved dummy model validated against new ...