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7th European LS-DYNA Conference

4a impetus - efficient evaluation of material cards for non-reinforced and reinforced thermoplastics
Peter Reithofer, Martin Fritz, Reinhard Hafellner - 4a engineering GmbH
LS-DYNA© has included plenty of material cards, each of them offering different scalability and complexity to describe the behavior of non- reinforced thermoplastics. The consideration of the strain rate behavior is included in many material cards, e.g. in the well known MAT_PICEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY. More complex material models can also handle varying compression and tension behavior as well as unloading by using damage functions. One of ...
A constitutive model for thermoplastics intended for structural applications
Mario Polanco-Loria, Torodd Berstad - SINTEF Materials and Chemistry / Structural Impact Laboratory (SIMLab)
Arild Holm Clausen, Odd Sture Hopperstad - Department of Structural Engineering, NTNU/Structural Impact Laboratory (SIMLab)
This paper presents a hyperelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model for thermoplastics [1]. It is partly based on a model proposed by Boyce et al. [2]. The model involves a hyperelastic- viscoplastic response due to intermolecular resistance, and an entropic hyperelastic response due to re-orientation of molecular chains. A Neo-Hookean material model is selected for describing large elastic deformations. Moreover, the Raghava plastic yield ...
A Coupling of Empirical Explosive Blast Loads to ALE Air Domains in LS-DYNA
Todd P. Slavik - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
A coupling method recently implemented in LS-DYNA® allows empirical explosive blast loads to be applied to air domains treated with the multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation. Previously, when simulating structures subjected to blast loads, two methods of analysis were available: a purely Lagrangian approach or one involving the ALE and Lagrangian formulations coupled with a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) ...
A heuristic attempt to reduce transverse shear locking in fully integrated hexahedra with poor aspect ratio
Dr. Thomas Borrvall - Engineering Research Nordic AB
In an attempt to alleviate transverse shear locking in fully integrated hexahedra elements with poor aspect ratio, two new variants of solid element type 2 in LS-DYNA have been developed, implemented and tested on some critical problems. The approach is based on modifying the jacobian matrix in such a way that the spurious stiffness is reduced without affecting the true physical behavior of the element. The method is in a sense justified ...
A Next Generation Software Platform for LS-DYNA Modeling and Configurable Vertical Application Development
H. Ouyang, Tim Palmer, Q. He - Engineering Technology Associates, Inc.
Finite element modeling tools have undergone a transformation in recent years. These tools have been made easier to use, configurable for vertical applications and able to interact with outside applications. Such software needs to not only efficiently create models, but are also expected to interact with other software tools, be configurable and anticipate the future needs of users by being able to extend the users ability to assimilate ...
A numerical study of the effect of geometrical factors on bi-layered tube hydroforming
Abed Alaswad, Abdul Ghani Olabi - Dublin City University
Tube hydroforming is one type of unconventional metal forming process in which high fluid pressure and axial feed are used to deform a tube blank in the desired shape. Bi-layered tube hydroforming is suitable to produce bi-layered joints which can be used in special applications such as aerospace, oil production, and nuclear power plants. In this work a finite element study was performed using ANSYS LS-DYNA to investigate the effect ...
A Numerical-Experimental Investigations on Crash Behaviour of Skin Panels during a Water Impact Comparing ALE and SPH Approaches
Eng. Edoardo Francesconi, Prof. Marco Anghileri - Politecnico di Milano
Water landings in emergency are likely to have tragic consequences for helicopters. Most of the safety devices developed to enhance helicopter crashworthiness have been designed referring to ground impacts and they might be not effective in case of water landings. At LAST, the crash labs of Politecnico di Milano, water impact drop tests were carried out to deepen the knowledge of the event dynamics and to collect reliable data to validate ...
Dr. Victor Apanovitch, Stefan Huhn - Forming Technologies Inc.
With a steady increase in computational power and decrease in hardware costs during the last few years, the incremental process simulation in the area of sheet metal forming is considered a state-of- the-art tool during the development process at OEMs and many, mainly larger, suppliers. However, the existing pre-processing tools do not support a template based analysis setup that can prevent the need for highly skilled personnel in order to ...
A Rate-Dependent, Elasto-Plastic Cohesive Zone Mixed-Mode Model for Crash Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Joints
Stephan Marzi, Olaf Hesebeck, Markus Brede - Fraunhofer IFAM
Felix Kleiner - Henkel AG & Co. KGaA
Presently, there are various cohesive zone models implemented in LS-DYNA. The simplest one consists of a bi-linear traction separation-law in both modes I and II. Further models allow more complicated shapes of the traction-separation law, such as the material model of Tvergaard and Hutchinson or the General Cohesive Zone Model. However, none of these implemented models consider rate-dependency or effects of plasticity. Crash-optimized ...
A Real World Approach for using LS-DYNA to Achieve True Springback Compensation on SS Components During Forming
M. Clarke - Continental Tool and Die
J. He - Engineering Technology Associates, Inc.
X. Zhu - LSTC
Springback is every tool designer’s nightmare. A tool designer can make a die adjustable for some areas that need to be over-hit. Most parts are sprung throughout their entire surface. In these cases the entire part would need adjustment. Almost every time the die always requires a re-cut/re-work to put the part in spec. This re-work and re-cut is a time consuming, trial and error method that takes shop resources which typically are not ...
A Strategy to Design Bird-proof Spinners
Prof. Marco Anghileri, Dr. Luigi-Maria L. Castelletti, Ing. Dario Molinelli, Ing. Federico Motta - Politecnico di Milano
Birdstrike is a serious threat for flight safety which causes every year remarkable losses. Even if modern aircrafts are certified for a level of bird impact resistance, it may happen that structures designed to carry aerodynamic loads, like a propeller spinner, may collapse after a bird strike. In general, the collapse of the spinner is not a concern if the fly-home capability is not compromised. In this paper, a strategy to design ...
A Study of LS-DYNA Implicit Performance in MPP
Dr. C. Cleve Ashcraft, Roger G. Grimes, and Dr. Robert F. Lucas - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
LS-DYNA models for Implicit Mechanics are getting larger and more complex. We are continually seeing models where the linear algebra problems in Implicit Mechanics have 10M rows and know of at least one that is nearly 40M rows. We expect users wanting to routinely solve problems with 30M very soon. It is these very large linear algebra problems that distinguish the computer requirements for Implicit Mechanics. This paper will present a study ...
A Study of Material and Architectural Effects on the Impact Response of 2D and 3D Dry Textile Composites using LS-DYNA
Gaurav Nilakantan, Michael Keefe, John W. Gillespie Jr. - University of Delaware
Travis A. Bogetti, Rob Adkinson - US Army Research Laboratory
High strength 2D fabrics and 3D textile composites comprised of materials such as KevlarTM, VectranTM, ZylonTM, and S2-Glass® find applications in protective systems such as personnel armor, spall liners, and turbine fragment containment. Various parameters can significantly affect the response of these fabrics under high rate impact including yarn/tow geometry (cross section), yarn/tow material (modulus, strength), and architecture ...
A Systematic Approach to Model Metals, Compact Polymers and Structural Foams in Crash Simulations with a Modular User Material
G. Oberhofer, H. Gese - MATFEM Partnerschaft Dr. Gese & Oberhofer
A. Bach, M. Franzen, H. Lanzerath - Ford Research & Advanced Engineering Europe
Today the automotive industry is faced with the demand to build light fuel-efficient vehicles while optimizing its crashworthiness and stiffness. A wide variety of new metallic and polymeric materials have been introduced to account for these increased requirements. Numerical analysis can significantly support this process if the analysis is really predictive. Within the numerical model a correct characterization of the material behaviour – ...
A Topology Optimization Tool for LS-DYNA Users: LS-OPT/Topology
Tushar Goel, Willem Roux, Nielen Stander - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
Topology optimization is a very powerful tool to develop new concepts and has been widely used in engineering problems involving static loading conditions. However, there has been relatively little work for topology optimization of industrial size non-linear dynamic systems. The main issues are non-linear interactions among the material properties, contacts between parts, large strain-rates, transient behavior, etc. A hybrid cellular ...
Adaptive Simulated Annealing for Global Optimization in LS-OPT
Tushar Goel, Nielen Stander - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
The efficient search of global optimal solutions is an important contemporary subject. Different optimization methods tackle the search in different ways. The gradient based methods are among the fastest optimization methods but the final optimal solution depends on the starting point. The global search using these methods is carried out by providing many starting points. Other optimization methods like evolutionary algorithms that mimic the ...
Adjusting the Contact Surface of Forming Tools in Order to Compensate for Elastic Deformations during the Process
Knut Großmann, Hajo Wiemer, Andrè Hardtmann, Lars Penter, Sebastian Kriechenbauer - TU Dresden
Nowadays, despite powerful simulation programs, the tool design process still contains manual and not reproducible work. In specific, the manual die spotting is mostly dependent on the workers experience and consumes a lot of time. A large potential to reduce time and costs is seen by decreasing the die maturing. The paper introduces an approach to obtain deep drawing tools from FE simulation with LS-DYNA, which need less additional manual ...
Advanced Simulation Methods for the new Porsche Panamera
F. Sautter, H. Hogenmüller - Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche
The Porsche Panamera brings together for the first time the virtues of a sports car with Porsche’s own interpretation of a classical Gran Turismo. This new segment is characterised by the balance between sportiness on the one hand and comfort, luxury and long-range touring characteristics on the other. The fact that the development was new, with no previous model available to use as a basis for vehicle parameters and characteristics, created ...
ALE Formulation for the Evaluation of Seismic Behaviour of Anchored and Unanchored Tanks
Z. Ozdemir - Bogazici University / Université de Lille
M. Souli - Université de Lille
Y. Fahjan - Gebze Institute of Technology
Estimation of the potential degree of risk for tank failure during an earthquake is very difficult to quantify since the liquid-tank system possesses many different nonlinear behaviour mechanisms which may be triggered simultaneously or separately depending on the characteristics of earthquake, contained liquid properties, fluid depth, dimensions of the tank, roof type, material properties, supporting conditions and stiffness of underlying ...
Leonard E Schwer - Schwer Engineering & Consulting Services
The focus of the present work is to perform an assessment of a relatively new class of numerical methods, referred to as meshfree methods, that offer analysts an alternate analytical technique for simulating this class of ballistic problems, without a priori trajectory knowledge, nor resorting to ad hoc criteria. The assessment is made by the comparison of projectile residual speeds provided by the various techniques, when used to simulate a ...
An assessment of the new LS-DYNA layered solid element: basics, patch simulation and its potential for thick composite structure analysis
Madhukar Chatiri - CADFEM GmbH
Thomas Güll - Adam Opel GmbH
Prof. Anton Matzenmiller - University of Kassel
One major component of fuel cell vehicles is the hydrogen storage system. A promising and nowadays mostly used approach is to store hydrogen in wet wound carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) vessels manufactured by filament winding process with an operating pressure of up to 70 MPa (hereafter referred as H2 vessel). Due to the inherent complexity and 3-dimensional nature, accurate behavior of such thick composite structures in impact ...
An inverse approach for material parameter identification in a cyclic bending test using LS-DYNA and LS-OPT
Per-Anders Eggertsen - Chalmers University of Technology
Kjell Mattiasson - Chalmers University of Technology / Volvo Cars Safety Centre
The residual stresses in the blank after forming are the main cause for the subsequent springback in a sheet forming operation. The accuracy of the predicted springback in a Finite Element simulation of the forming operation is very much determined by the quality of the material modeling. Those parts of the workpiece, which in particular contribute to the global springback, have usually been subjected to a bending/unbending deformation mode, ...
An Investigation of the Application of Bolt Pre- Stress and its Effect during Low Speed Impact Loading
A. Sean Duvall - AMEC
This report is an initial investigation in to the effect of pre-stress of bolts during impact. The conclusions are not definitive but do indicate that for large strain analysis the effect of pre-stress in bolts is minimal. The effects are more noticeable for lateral impacts than in axial impacts. Further investigation is required to determine the effects of including friction and for other bolted configurations. This report is not an AMEC ...
An Investigation to Compare the Application of Shell and Solid Element Honeycomb Model in ODB
Mehrdad Asadi - Cellbond
Brian Walker - ARUP
Hassan Shirvani - Anglia Ruskin University
Cellbond and ARUP have launched their advanced crash barrier models in 2006 and since the time a continuous study has been carried out to distinguish costumer requirements and review feedbacks. Existing barrier models are constructed using the solid element configuration in honeycomb segments along with validated Modified_Honeycomb material cards. Due to a number of demands on using Shell based honeycomb model in crash barriers by ...
An LS-DYNA material model for simulations of hot stamping processes of ultra high strength steels
Dr. Tobias Olsson - Engineering Research Nordic AB
This paper present a new material model (*MAT_244) in LS-DYNA capable of simulating phase transition during quenching and forming. Usually during forming the blank is initially heated to become fully austenitized and then continuously formed and cooled. When the temperature is decreasing the austenite decomposes into different product phases. The amount of each phase does not only depend on the mechanical history, but also on the cooling ...
Automated Metamodeling for Efficient Multi-Disciplinary Optimisation of Complex Automotive Structures
Dr. Florian Jurecka - FE-DESIGN GmbH
The use of multi-disciplinary optimisation methods (MDO) in the development process of complex automotive structures is often hindered by several problems. The required resources for very expensive simulations such as crash or 3D CFD analyses rapidly exceed the means available – especially whenever many input parameters, disciplines or load cases are involved. Furthermore, we have experienced that it can be difficult to assure stable runs of ...
Behaviour and Modelling of Dual-Phase Steels
Venkatapathi Tarigopula, Odd Sture Hopperstad, Magnus Langseth, Arild Holm Clausen - Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
Dual-phase steels are being increasingly considered for application in vehicle structural crash components because of their combined attributes of high-strength and good formability characteristics. Accurate prediction of such components, which are often made of formed components, is necessary to reduce the cost of physical tests. The non-linear finite element method is an efficient and reliable tool for the design of new components. The ...
Bird Strike Analysis of Aircraft Engine Fan
Y.N. Shmotin, P.V. Chupin, D.V. Gabov - NPO SATURN
А.А. Ryabov , V.I. Romanov , S.S. Kukanov - Sarov Engineering Center
Safety in accidental conditions is one of the important requirements an aviation jet engine must meet. It is known that one of quite possible and very dangerous accident is a bird strike into the engine in the flight. This case is characterized by the high speed impact of the bird onto rotating blades of the fan, causing large dynamic deformations of the blades and other elements which may lead to disintegration of the construction. That’s ...
Bird Strike and Fan Blade Out Using LS-DYNA at Snecma
Brick versus shell elements in simulations of aluminium extrusions subjected to axial crushing
Ø. Fyllingen - Bergen University College
O.S. Hopperstad, A.G. Hanssen, M. Langseth - Norwegian University of Science and Technolog
In previous published literature, deviations in the mean crushing force and deformation pattern have been found between simulations with plane stress shell elements and experimental results for aluminium extrusions subjected to axial crushing. In the current study, simulations with solid and shell element models were carried out and compared to experimental results to study the influence of element type for this class of ...
CAE Data Management from a single Geometry Revision to multi-disciplinary Simulation Results
Jens Philippeit, Zoran Petrovic - Siemens Product Lifecycle Management Software
Development processes for more complex new products and better performance require necessarily verification through digital simulation. Due to shortened development cycles the time to answer questions about reliable product characteristics is cut off and an efficient change management has to be established in the process chain from CAD to CAE. Normally CAE processes start with CAD data from a PDM system. To start CAE analysis it is ...
Characterisation and Simulation of Structural Adhesives
M. Clarke, J.G. Broughton, A.R. Hutchinson - Oxford Brookes University
M. Buckley - Jaguar Land Rover
The analysis of adhesive bonded joints and structures relies on accurate materials data and mathematical models. In the present study the goal was to develop a method for simulating accurately, using LS-Dyna, the behaviour of aluminium structures bonded with a single part, heat curing epoxy adhesive. This required a structure with known boundary conditions and for which the substrates deformed in a predictable manner. A suitable specimen, ...
Cluster Scalability of Implicit and Implicit-Explicit LS-DYNA Simulations Using a Parallel File System
Mr. Stan Posey, Dr. Bill Loewe - Panasas Inc.
Dr. Paul Calleja - University of Cambridge
The parallel efficiency and simulation turn-around times of CAE software continue to be an important factor behind engineering and scientific decisions to develop models at higher fidelity. Most parallel LS-DYNA simulations use scalable Linux clusters for their demanding HPC requirements, but for certain classes of FEA models, data IO can severely degrade overall scalability and limit CAE effectiveness. As LS-DYNA model sizes grow and the ...
Collision of a light weight passenger car against a steel bridge barrier: evaluation of severity indices varying impact conditions
Prof. Dr. Mariano Pernetti, Dr. Salvatore Scalera - AMET ITALY
The standards which fixes guidelines for the execution of crash tests to assess the effectiveness of safety barriers in USA and Europe, define an experiment with a low weight passenger car. Such an investigation’s aim is to evaluate risks for vehicle’s occupants in case of impact against the tested device. The congruence of this approach with the philosophy of testing at “the practical worst condition”, has been widely demonstrated in ...
Combined Numerical/Experimental Approach for Rivet Strength Assessment
F. Previtali, M. Anghileri, L.-M. L. Castelletti, A. Milanese - Politecnico di Milano
The failure mechanism of common aeronautical structures is influenced by the crash behaviour of the riveted joints. Therefore, crashworthiness analyses of aeronautical structures require accurate models of the joints under crash conditions for a correct prediction of the crash behaviour of the structure. In this work, a method to create reliable FE models able to reproduce the behaviour of rivets under crash conditions is introduced. Using ...
Comparison of crash tests and simulations for various vehicle restraint systems
M. Massenzio, S. Ronel - Université de Lyon
C. Goubel - Université de Lyon / Laboratoire INRETS Equipements de la Route (LIER SA), Lyon Saint Exupéry Aéroport
E. Di Pasquale - SIMTECH
The use of computational mechanics methods is now largely adopted in the field of Road Side Safety. They are certainly interesting in the context a product development. However, the application of these methods in the certification process raises number of issues, addressed, among others, within the EU CEN TC226/WG1/TG1/CM-E, where some of the authors participate. This paper presents some crash test results and their related simulations, and ...
Computing on GPUs
Prof. Dr. Uli Göhner - DYNAmore GmbH
The increasing power of GPUs has led to the intent to transfer computing load from CPUs to GPUs. A first example has been the porting of computing intensive algorithms like e.g. ray-tracing algorithms from CPU to GPU. Through the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA [4]) GPUs can also be used to increase computing speed for High Performance Computing applications. In this paper different parallelization strategies for different ...
Considering damage history in crashworthiness simulations
Frieder Neukamm, Markus Feucht - Daimler AG
André Haufe - DYNAmore GmbH
Crashworthiness simulations using explicit Finite Element methods are a central part of the CAE process chain of car body development. Since crash tests of prototype cars at an early development stage are very expensive, a maximum in predictive performance of crash simulations can make a substantial contribution to a cost-efficient car development process. A central issue to ensure this, is an accurate prediction of ...
Klaus Wolf - Fraunhofer Institute SCAI, Germany
Dr.-Ing. Robert Schilling - Ford-Werke GmbH, Köln
Dr. Jörn Lütjens, Dr.-Ing. Michael Hunkel - IWT Bremen
Dr.-Ing. Thomas Wallmersperger - ISD Universität Stuttgart
Udo Jankowski - Tecosim GmbH
Dirk Sihling - GNS mbH
Klaus Wiegand, Albrecht Zöller - Daimler AG
Martin Heuse Faurecia Autositze GmbH
In the automotive industry, there is an increasing demand for weight reduction as well as safety requirements. These demands have motivated the use of locally optimized components. This study shows how local rigidity of crash-relevant side rails made of multi-phase steels can be improved by local hardening and thus avoiding an increase of the cross section. At the same time simulation process chains were completed and results validated by ...
Crash and Vibration Analysis of rotors in a Roots Vacuum Booster
Manuel Roth - Pfeiffer Vacuum GmbH
Stefan Kolling - Giessen University of Applied Sciences
The dynamic behaviour of a roots vacuum booster with two rotors is presented. The dynamic response of the structure is, thereby, investigated using an explicit analysis for the crash behaviour and an implicit analysis for the vibration behaviour. Typically the rotors run from 3000rpm to 3600rpm, but because of a desired rise in power density it is necessary to design rotors for operation at 6000rpm. With increasing rotational velocity the ...
Crash Simulation of an F1 Racing Car Front Impact Structure
S. Heimbs, F. Strobl, P. Middendorf, S. Gardner, B. Eddington, J. Key - EADS Innovation Works, Force India Formula One Limited
Formula 1 motorsport is a platform for maximum race car driving performance resulting from high-tech developments in the area of lightweight materials and aerodynamic design. In order to ensure the driver’s safety in case of high-speed crashes, special impact structures are designed to absorb the race car’s kinetic energy and limit the decelerations acting on the human body. These energy absorbing structures are made of laminated composite ...
Crashworthiness of Aluminium Structures Modelling and Validation
M. Langseth - Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Lightweight materials such as aluminium offer the automotive industry an opportunity to design and manufacture high-performance vehicles that are safe, energy-efficient and environmentally friendly, and much lighter than traditional designs. However, the introduction of these materials will challenge the automotive design engineers to explore and develop new solutions in design and production technology in order to fully realize the ...
Damage modelling of a TRIP steel for integrated simulation from deep drawing to crash
Dr. Dong-Zhi Sun, Dr. Florence Andrieux - Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials
Dr. Markus Feucht - HPC X271
The local mechanical properties e.g. flow stress and fracture strain in an automotive component manufactured by deep drawing are inhomogeneous due to different local deformation degrees which affect the component behaviour under crash loading. A reasonable approach for modelling the damage behaviour of a component produced by deep drawing is a coupling between forming simulation and crash simulation. The open questions are which material ...
Deformation Behaviour of Filled and Capped PET Bottles in the High-Speed Labeling Machine
Bharat Chittepu, Matthias Hörmann, Ulrich Stelzmann - CADFEM GmbH
Harald Wels, Thomas Albrecht - KRONES AG
The increasing use of PET bottles has been and continues to be a dramatic growth story in the packaging industry. The adaption of PET bottles for soft drinks, juice drinks, water, food and other products continues to provide exciting packaging opportunities. Increasing use meant increase in demand and the need for saving time in the process chain of the packaging industry. One area where a high speed process is possible is labeling. In higher ...
Desicion Making in Multi-Objective Optimization for Industrial Applications - Data Mining and Visualization of Pareto Data
Katharina Witowski, Martin Liebscher - DYNAmore GmbH
Tushar Goel - Livermore Software Technology Coorporation
Optimization of engineering structures where multiple (more or less conflicting) objectives are simulta- neously considered, is getting more and more attractive in automotive industries. They usually involve a large number of design variables and the objectives are subject to certain constraints. Unlike single- objective problems, there are many trade-off solutions. The most common approach of using a single aggregate objective function ...
Determination of Flow Curves by Stack Compression Tests and Inverse Analysis for the Simulation of Hot Forming
B. Hochholdinger, P. Hora - ETH Zurich
H. Grass, A. Lipp - BMW AG
Due to the increasing number of body-in-white parts that are manufactured by hot forming of boron alloyed sheet metal (22MnB5), the demand for a virtual representation of this specific manufac- turing process is evident. For a realistic simulation of hot stamping processes, the accurate modeling of the flow stress as function of strain, strain rate and temperature is essential. In the last years a large varity of ...
Developing Failure Criteria for Application to Ship Structures Subjected To Explosive Blast Loadings
Mark Tyler-Street, Joke Luyten - TNO Defence
A research programme is being undertaken at TNO to investigate vulnerability reduction on warships. In this framework, studies have been performed regarding the structural damage due to both an internal missile explosion and close in explosions. Due to the severity of the explosive loadings the structural deformation is considerable and an accurate method to predict both the initiation and progression of material damage would be ...
Development of a Flex-PLI LS-DYNA Model
Shinya Hayashi - JSOL Corporation
Masahiro Awano, Isamu Nishimura - Mitsubishi Motors Corporation
A biofidelic flexible pedestrian legform impactor (Flex-PLI) has been developed by Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. (JAMA) and Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). The Flex-PLI has good biofidelity as well as several knee ligament elongation measurement capabilities, three femur and four tibia bending moment measurement capabilities. For these reasons Flex-PLI is likely to be used for future pedestrian Global Technical ...
Development of a Software for the Comparison of Curves During the Verification and Validation of Numerical Models
Mario Mongiardini, Malcolm H. Ray - Worcester Polytechnic Institute,
Marco Anghileri - Politecnico di Milano
This paper describes the development of the Roadside Safety Verification and Validation Program (RSVVP), a software that automatically assesses the similarities and differences between two curves. This program was developed to assist engineers and analysts in performing curve comparison during the verification and validation process of a numerical model. RSVVP was designed to automatically preprocess the two input curves to make them ...
Development of Material Input Data for Solid Elements under Crash Loads
Dr. Ing. Harald Mandel - BA-Stuttgart
Paul Du Bois -
Tim Rzesnitzek - Daimler AG, Stuttgart Germany
Heavy trucks have large masses and only small deformation zones. Because of this, they are loaded relatively severe in case of a crash. Under those conditions structural response is characterised not only by plastic deformation but also by failure in terms of cracks or fracture. Hence, failure prediction is essential for designing such parts. The following article describes the procedure of generating material models for failure prognosis ...