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4th European LS-DYNA Conference

*MAT GAS MIXTURE, a new gas mixture model for airbag applications
Lars Olovsson - LSTC
Recent efforts to model fully coupled CFD-airbag processes have motivated the implementation of a gas mixture model in LS-DYNA. The new model, *MAT GAS MIXTURE, allows the mixing of up to eight different gases. It is designed to conserve the total energy of the system. Kinetic energy dissipated in the ALE advection process is automatically transformed into heat. The article serves as a description of the gas mixture model and of the accompanying ...
A Correlation Study between MPP LS-DYNA Performance and Various Interconnection Networks — a Quantitative Approach for Determining the Communication and Computation Costs
Yih-Yih Lin - Hewlett-Packard Company
As MPP LS-DYNA uses the message-passing paradigm to obtain parallelism, the elapsed time of an MPP LS-DYNA simulation comprises of two parts: computation cost and communication cost. A quantitative approach for determining the communication cost and, hence, the computation cost and the speedup of an MPP LS-DYNA simulation is presented. Elapsed times, characteristic—latency and bandwidth—of interconnect networks, and message patterns are first ...
A method for modifying the forming tool geometry in order to compensate for springback effects
Anders Jernberg - Engineering Research Nordic AB, Sweden
There is always a certain amount of springback deformation in a metal forming process. The high strength steel is becoming a more attractive choice for many applications when low weight of the structure is of importance. One major drawback with the high strength steel is that the springback deformation increased compared to low strength steel. All currently known techniques to reduce the springback deformation are used in tool design today, so ...
A new constitutive model for nitrogen austenitic stainless steel
S. Fréchard, A. Lichtenberger, F. Rondot, N. Faderl - Institut Franco-Allemand de Recherches, France
Redjaïmia - Laboratoire de Science et Génie des surfaces, France
M. Adoum - CRIL, France
Quasi-static, quasi-dynamic and dynamic compression tests have been performed on a nitrogen alloyed austenitic stainless steel. This alloy achieves a high hardening modulus and a good ductility at all strain rates. In addition, this steel is very sensitive to strain rate. The temperature sensitivity has been determined for temperatures varying between 20°C and 400°C. Microstructural analysis has been performed on samples subjected to different ...
A New Simulation Method for Airbags With Multiple Compartments (Adaptive Euler Domains)
R.S. Sadeghi, W.A. van der Veen - MSC.Software Corporation
The paper presents a new simulation method for airbags with multiple compartments. In recent years many accidents happened with passengers that were out of position (OOP) when their airbag deployed. Therefore new safety regulations have come into effect in the USA and an airbag now has to meet several requirements that concern out of positioning. In meeting these requirements simulations of deploying airbags are very useful and are widely used. ...
A simplified approach to the simulation of rubber-like materials under dynamic loading
Paul A. Du Bois - consulting engineer
The simulation of rubber materials is becoming increasingly important in automotive crashworthiness simulations. Although highly sophisticated material laws are available in LS-DYNA to model rubber parts, the determination of material properties can be non-trivial and time consuming. In many applications, the rubber component is mainly loaded uniaxially at rather high strain rates. In this paper a simplified material model for rubber is ...
Analyzing 'Noisy' Structural Problems with LS-OPT: Probabilistic and Deterministic Fundamentals
Willem Roux, Nielen Stander - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
System identification of 'noisy' structural design optimization problems: the sources of uncertainty, the competing roles of bias and variance, and the interaction of uncertainty and deterministic effects. Two test problems are used to clarify the effect of different approaches.
Application of MADYMO Occupant Models in LS-DYNA/MADYMO Coupling
Happee R., Janssen, A.J., Fraterman E., Monster J.W. - TNO Automotive
The LS-DYNA – MADYMO coupling has been extended so that users gain maximal flexibility in their choice of software and models. Where the traditional coupling allowed only MADYMO ellipsoids and planes to contact entities in the coupled code, now contact can also be defined with MADYMO FE. This enables state of the art MADYMO dummy models, subsystem models, barrier models and human models to be applied in the coupling with LS-DYNA.
Automating LS-DYNA Simulation Processes using SOFY’s Rapid Application Development Environment RADE.
Dirk Ulrich - SOFY GmbH, Germany
Since the first applications of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in automotive design this technology has gone a long way to become a standard tool fully integrated in the design process of automotive industry. Strongly promoted by progress in mathematics, information and computer technology simulation results have today reached a level of accuracy comparable to physical testing. In parallel developments in software technology – ranging from CAD to ...
Benefits of the AMD Opteron Processor for LS-DYNA
Dawn Rintala - Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Biomechanical analysis of whiplash injuries; women are not scaled down men
Mordaka J., Gentle C. R. - Nottingham Trent University
Whiplash is the most common soft tissue injury sustained in car accidents. The term is commonly associated with hyperextension of the neck as the head rotates backwards in rear end collisions but the exact injury mechanism is not fully understood because the neck is an anatomically and mechanically complex structure. Experimental studies of the mechanism of injury are limited by several ethical and practical factors, so biomechanical ...
CAE Data Management and Quality Assessment of LS-DYNA Crash Models using V-CESS
Matthias Eick, Dr. Lars Fredriksson, Dr. Jochen Seybold - Altair Engineering GmbH
The meshing, modeling and evaluation of LS-DYNA crash models for vehicle crash simulations is constantly subjected to an increase in complexity, since the model sizes grow, several vehicle variants are instanced from one single CAE data set and since the number of load cases and the requirements on the evaluation quality are constantly increasing. Current models sometimes contain more than 1000 different components and 1 million elements. In ...
CAE Process Support by MIDAS and MEDINA
Sattler M., Finkel A.
CAE Simulations for Passive Safety focused on the Porsche Cayenne - the Transition to New Technologies
Erich Schelkle, Herbert Klamser - Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG
Simulation technologies are methods which have been traditionally applied in automotive engineering for a long time. Over the decades, enormous progress has been achieved in both, the simulation methods and the CAE-programs used. Thanks to the high efficiency levels of the current computer generation and the use of economically priced commercially available hardware such methods are being applied on a widespread basis today. Visionary concepts ...
Comparative Performance of InfiniBand Architecture and Gigabit Ethernet Interconnects on Intel® Itanium® 2 Microarchitecture-based Clusters
Dr. Lars E. Jonsson, Dr. William R. Magro - Intel Americas, Inc.
The Intel® Itanium® 2 microarchitecture is based on a 64-bit processor architecture that is ideally suited to compute-intensive applications such as LS-DYNA. In fact, Hewlett Packard* has demonstrated outstanding performance of their Itanium 2-based systems on a range of technical computing applications, including LS-DYNA[1]. Given the success of the platform in achieving performance on a per-processor basis, we turned our attention to the ...
Computational Micro-Mechanical Model of Composite & Flexible Woven Fabric with Fiber Reorientation
Ala Tabiei, Ivelin Ivanov - University of Cincinnat
Consideration of Manufacturing Effects to Improve Crash Simulation Accuracy
Curd-Sigmund Böttcher, Steffen Frik - Adam Opel AG
The confidence level of crash simulations is mainly determined by a well-defined finite element representation of the vehicle structure, correct modelling of the kinematics, and the material properties being applied. In the past, materials were described by quasistatic – or, if available – dynamic stress-strain characteristics. Besides this, each sheet metal part was assumed to have a uniform gage and material characteristics. However, it is a ...
Considerations for LS-DYNA Efficiency in SGI IRIX and Linux Environments with a NUMA System Architecture
Stan Posey, Nick Meng - SGI
Manufacturing industry and research organizations continue to increase their investments in structural analysis and impact simulations such that the growing number of LS-DYNA users continue to demand more from computer system environments. These demands typically include rapid single job turnaround and multi-job throughput capability in a multi-user high-performance computing (HPC) environment. What is more, many LS-DYNA simulation environments ...
Crash Simulation in Pedestrian Protection
Susanne Dörr, Hartmut Chladek, Armin Huß - Ingenieurbüro Huß & Feickert
Crashworthiness Optimization in LS-OPT: Case Studies in Metamodeling and Random Search Techniques
Nielen Stander, Willem Roux - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
Mathias Giger, Marcus Redhe - University of Linköping, Sweden
Nely Fedorova - Snezhinsk Institute of Physics and Technology, Russia
Johan Haarhoff - University of Pretoria, South Africa
This crashworthiness optimization study compares the use of three metamodeling techniques while using a sequential random search method as a control procedure. The three methods applied are (i) the original Successive Linear Response Surface Method, (ii) the Neural Network method and (iii) the Kriging method. It is shown that, although NN and Kriging seem to require a larger number of initial points, the three metamodeling methods have ...
Current and future developments of LS-DYNA I
Dr. Hallquist J. O. - Livermore Software Technology Corp.
LSTC’s Perspective on the future Version 970 status Recent developments for crash Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Developments Implicit Developments EFG (Mesh-free) Developments MPP Outlook
Current and future developments of LS-DYNA II
Dr. Hallquist J. O. - Livermore Software Technology Corp.
Development and Validation of Numerical Pedestrian Impactor Models
Thomas Frank - Daimler Chrysler AG
Artur Kurz - LASSO Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH
Martin Pitzer - PENG GmbH
Michael Söllner - Porsche AG
Development of a 50th Percentile Hybrid III Dummy Model
Cing-Dao (Steve) Kan, Dhafer Marzougui, Nabih E. Bedewi - The George Washington University
Due to significant improvements in computer technology and finite element (FE) code capabilities, it has become more feasible and effective to incorporate occupant models in the analysis and evaluation of vehicle crashworthiness and safety. Using Detailed FE models that incorporate the vehicle, restrains systems, and occupants, in automotive safety analyses have shown advantages over the traditional methods where the vehicle and occupants are ...
Examples' manual for *USER_LOADING option
Melissa Adoum, Vincent Lapoujade - CRIL Technology Correspondence
The aim of this study is to understand how the *USER_LOADING option works and to give some examples of its use. This option uses the subroutine loadud, its usage will be described step by step and it is illustrated with four examples : • Plate loaded with time dependant pressure, • Plate loaded with displacement dependant pressure, • Randers-Pehrson & Bannister Tests, • Plate loaded by an explosion of 5kg of TNT. Some of those examples use ...
Ulrich Franz, Peter Schuster, Werner Schmid, Oliver Graf - DYNAmore GmbH
Detailed finite element side impact dummy models of the USSID, EUROSID, and ES-2 have been developed in cooperation with the German Association for Automotive Research (FAT) during the last 5 years. All models are validated using tests at material and component levels as well as fully assembled models. The models are used by nearly all car manufacturers worldwide who use LS-DYNA for occupant safety simulations. The paper describes modeling ...
Finite Element Analysis of Stresses Due to Normal and Sliding Contact Conditions on an Elastic Surface
Anantha Ram B.S., Joachim Danckert, Torben Faurholdt - Aalborg University, Denmark
Wear prediction necessitates the investigation of elastic stresses developed in the workpiece material due to impact and sliding of abrasive particles in tribological contact situations. LS-Dyna implicit finite element analysis is used to investigate these contact stresses in the workpiece material under imposed Hertzian pressure loading. A line contact condition (cylindrical body on a plane surface) is assumed and the predicted stress field is ...
Haryanti Samekto - Universitaet Stuttgart
Karl Roll - DaimlerChrysler AG
Superplastic forming process has been a standard manufacturing process in aircraft industry and its applications in other industries are increasing. Superplasticity is utilised in forming parts which can not be produced technically or economically using materials with ordinary ductility. As superplastic deformation should be carried out under certain strain rate in which m value is maximal, the finite element method is applied to model the ...
Finite Element Models for European Testing: Finite Element Models for European Testing: Side Impact Barrier to WG13 Pedestrian Impactors to WG17
Trevor Dutton - Arup Solihull, UK
Fluid-Structure Interaction in LS-DYNA: Industrial Applications
M’hamed Souli - Universite des Sciences et Technologie de Lille
Lars Olovson - LSTC
Numerical problems due to element distortions limit the applicability of a Lagrangian description of motion when modeling large deformation processes. An alternative technique is the multi-material Eulerian formulation. It is a method where the material flows through a mesh that is completely fixed in space and where each element is allowed to contain a mixture of different materials. The method completely avoids element distortions and it can, ...
FTSS FEA Dummy Models update: SID-IIs Small Side Impact Dummy Model and others
Fuchun Zhu, York Huang - First Technology Safety Systems, Inc.
SID-IIs, the small side impact dummy, is the smallest side impact crash test dummy currently available in the market, representing the anthropometry of a small female or a thirteen-year-old child. It is designed specifically to evaluate the performance of advanced occupant protection systems, such as side air bags, in automotive side impact situations. This paper presents the development and validation of new FTSS SID-IIs dummy model for LS-Dyna ...
Heat Transfer in LS-DYNA
Arthur B. Shapiro - Livermore Software Technology Corporation
LS-Dyna can solve steady state and transient heat transfer problems on 2dimensional parts, cylindrical symmetric parts (axisymmetric), and 3-dimensional parts. Heat transfer can be coupled with other features in LS-DYNA to provide modeling capabilities for thermal-stress and thermal-fluid coupling. This paper presents several examples using LS-DYNA for modeling manufacturing processes (e.g., upseting, extrusion, welding, casting).
How to Develop a Five Star Car by using LS-DYNA
R. Malcusson - Saab Automobile AB
How to Make LS-DYNA Run Faster
Guangye Li, Jeff Zais - IBM Deep Computing Team
Impact Performance of Flexible Guardrail Systems using LS-DYNA
Khaled Sennah - Ryerson University
Magdy Samaan - University of Windsor
Ahmed Elmarakbi - University of Toronto
Implementation and Validation of the Johnson-Holmquist Ceramic Material Model in LS-Dyna
Cronin D. S., Kaufmann C. - University of Waterloo
McIntosch G., Bui K., Berstad T. - LSTC
Ceramic materials are commonly used in protective armour applications and may be subject to high-energy ballistic impacts in these situations. Under simple loading conditions, ceramics may be regarded as elastic-brittle materials. However, when considering ballistic impacts, the post-yield response of the ceramic becomes significant. One of the most widely used constitutive models for simulating the postyield response of ceramic materials is the ...
Implementation of a material model for TRIP-steels in LS-DYNA and comparison with test results
Daniel Hilding - Engineering Research Nordic AB
Erik Schedin - AvestaPolarit AB
This paper describes the implementation of a new material model into LS-DYNA version 960, LSTC (1-4), a material model capable of predicting the TRIP-effect of HyTensX for different forming operations in different temperature scenarios. The implementation is verified by comparing measurements from three tension tests with simulations of the tension tests. The comparison shows good to excellent agreement, which is a strong indication that the ...
Implicit Functionality in LS-DYNA v970
Dr. B. Maker, Dr. R. Grimes, Dr. C. Ashcraft - Livermore Software Technology Corp.
Improved Infrastructure Accessibility and Control with LSF for LS-DYNA
Bernhard Schott, Christof Westhues - Platform Computing GmbH
Improved Numerical Investigations of a Projectile Impact on a Textile Structure
Gunther Blankenhorn - Universität Karlsruhe
Karl Schweizerhof - Dynamore GmbH
Hermann Finckh - Institut für Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik Denkendorf
Past perceptions to the processes of the penetration mechanisms of projectiles acting on textile structures [1] are often based on continuum models [2] or simplified models [3] and admit only limited conclusions concerning the real behavior of protective clothing made from several layers of fabric. Only a few investigations are known up to now with models based on single yarns as a major component for discretization [4]. Thus, for the prediction ...
Improved Plasticity and Failure models for Extruded MgProfiles in Crash Simulations
Gernot Oberhofer, Harry Dell, Dmitri Dell, Helmut Gese - MATFEM Partnerschaft Dr. Gese & Oberhofer Horst Lanzerath, Jürgen Wesemann - Ford Forschungszentrum
Elke Hombergsmeier - EADS Corporate Research Center
The Crash Simulation of Magnesium Structures with Finite Element Methods demands the use of suitable material and failure models. An associated plasticity model describing the complex asymmetric yield behaviour in tension and compression of Mg extrusions has been developed during the InMaK-project (Innovative Magnesium Compound Structures for Automobile Frames) supported by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). ...
Improving Productivity by Immersion and Interaction – A New Approach in CAE
Dr. A. Rößler - ICIDO
Improving the Roadside Safety with Computational Simulations
Matej Vesenjak, Zoran Ren - University of Maribor
The road restraint systems on public streets are used to prevent a vehicle to veer off the road or its breakthrough to the opposite side of the road. The road restraint systems designed according to the EN 1317 standard are intended to provide certifiable levels of vehicle containment, to redirect errant vehicles and to provide guidance for pedestrians and other road users. Its proper design is therefore crucially important for safety of all ...
Influence of the Effect of Strain Rates on Springback in Aluminum 2024 (ISO AlCu4Mg1)
Pravin Kulkarni, Shashikiran Prabhakar - Cessna Aircraft Company
Forming of aluminum sheets in T-temper is a much sought after industrial process, especially in the aircraft industry. However, the success of this process largely hinges on the ability to predict springback accurately. Aluminum sheets in T-temper exhibit approximately twenty percent variability in material properties and also the amount of springback is very large. This makes tool design for aluminum in T-temper an iterative and difficult to ...
Integration of Simulation in the Development Process
J. Brockmann - Faurecia Autositze GmbH & Co. KG
Itanium®– a viable next-generation technology for crash simulation?
Adrian Hillcoat - Hewlett-Packard Ltd Bracknell, UK
In the area of crash simulation, LS-DYNA has traditionally been a good application for measuring performance of leading computer architectures. This paper considers the architectural design of the Intel Itanium® processor, as well as the system architectures into which Itanium fits, with the purpose of understanding the benefits of the novel 64-bit EPIC architecture over and above conventional 64-bit RISC architectures as well as 32-bit Intel ...
Jet Engine Fan Blade Containment using Two Alternate Geometries
Kelly Carney, Mike Pereira, Duane Revilock - NASA Glenn Research Center
Paul Matheny - Florida Turbine Technology
In the rare event of a fan blade separation, the fan blade must not penetrate the case of a commercial jet engine. Due to this requirement the fan case is the heaviest single component of a jet engine. With a goal of reducing that weight, a simulation of a fan blade containment system was tested at the NASA GRC Ballistic Impact Lab and analyzed using LS-DYNA. A fan blade simulating projectile was shot at two alternate geometric containment case ...
Linux Cluster Compute Power Out of the Box
Harry Schlagenhauf - science+computing
LS- Dyna on MPP Platforms, Experiences and Practical Recommendations
Rainer Emrich, Udo Jankowski - Tecosim GmbH
LS-DYNA Applications in Shipbuilding
Hervé Le Sourne, Nicolas Couty, François Besnier - Principa Marine, France
Cyrille Kammerer, Hervé Legavre - DCN Ingénierie, France
Ship and submarine structures have long been studied thanks to finite element methods. Their large dimension and complexity, the coupling with heavy fluid and the presence of a free surface raise numerical problems on the field of dynamic analysis. This is particularly true for extreme or accidental situations such as collision and grounding, underwater explosion and severe fluid impact. This paper describes first numerical methods and tools ...