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Eletric Vehicle

Lithium-Ion Battery Models and Thermal Management in LS-DYNA

We have developed two Lithium-ion battery models in LS-DYNA®: i) a single insertion lithium metal model, and ii) a dual insertion composite model. Our models are intended to assist users in tackling problems ranging from the fundamental battery cell physics to very complex situations such as thermal management (TM) of electric vehicle (EV), and eventually, battery-structure-interaction (BSI) problems. The battery models in LS-DYNA® are based on the following multiphysics aspects: 1) thermodynamics, 2) kinetics, and 3) transport. In thermodynamics, the role of electrochemical potential, which is the driving force in the concentrated solution will be discussed, and an example will be provided as to how to set up the open-circuit potential card in the keyword input. Detailed presentation of Bulter-Volmer kinetics illustrates how to correctly evaluate the surface overpotential at the interface between electrode and electrolyte, and also the pore-wall flux from the insertion materials in compsite electrodes. In addition, comprehensive keyword set up for the transport properties in both aqueous and polymer electrolyte will be provided, including the concentrated material transport theory. For the thermal treatment of the battery model, we have coupled with existing thermal solver and structure solver and thus, we will present a keyword example showing how to simulate a thermal problem in a battery cell stack, module and pack in the practical scaled-up EV application. Finally, we will provide the future development plan to handle more complex problems confronting the battery related industries by using BSI solver in LS-DYNA®.

BatMac: A Battery Macro Model to Simulate a Full Battery in an Electric or Hybrid Car Crash

Safety is an important functional requirement in the development of large-format, energy-dense, lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries used in electrified vehicles. Computer aided engineering (CAE) tools that predict the response of a Li-ion battery pack to various abusive conditions can support analysis during the design phase and reduce the need for physical testing. In particular, simulations of the multiphysics response of external or internal short circuits can lead to optimized system designs for automotive crash scenarios.

Measurement of Electromagnetic Launcher Muzzle Velocity with Induced Voltage of B-Dot Probe

Recently (early 2013), LS-DYNA has released EM module to solve transient electromagnetic-structural coupled problem. The ‘transient’ means that this software is able to consider shape, deformation and movement of objective model. Until now, there is few commercial software what supports electromagnetic-structural coupled transient problem despite of much necessity. Especially, to facilitate the coupled transient problem, LS-DYNA adopts boundary element method (BEM) what does not need air field mesh manually. By supporting this ability, eddy current, induced heating and resistive heating problems in transient can be successfully and easily solved. In this paper, by using LS-DYNA EM, conduct B-dot probe performance prediction as install positions and directions. Also, measrue muzzle velocity of an electromangetic laucher by the probe.

Battery Cooling Simulation using STAR-CCM+

A generic Li-ion battery pack as typically used in an electric vehicle is simulated in STAR-CCM+, using an analytical model for the electrochemical battery behavior and a thermal/flow simulation with conjugate heat transfer to determine the cooling efficiency. A single Li-ion battery cell is modeled in Battery Design Studio. This model is then used in the Battery Simulation Module of STAR-CCM+, which allows to embed the cell within an electric circuit and to put it under a prescribed load. The battery model then calculates the heat development in the cell based on the load and the electrochemical model. This heat is applied as a distributed heat source in the fluid simulation, which can then be used to investigate and optimize the cooling efficiency.